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2013 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Underwater scene understanding by optical and acoustic data integration
Moroni D., Pascali M. A., Reggiannini M., Salvetti O.
A new method is proposed to integrate 3D optical and acoustic images relative to the same underwater environment. The combination of optical and acoustic sensors in terms of uniform reference system, geo-referencing and time allows: (i) integration cascade (operational level), (ii) safety data acquisition in various domains (distance from ground, turbid water, vegetation, etc.), (iii) replanning of missions in progress. Furthermore, data fusion can be faced according to different approaches: (a) stratification of referenced data layers, (b) correlation of quantities of different nature, (c) comparison of extracted features: 2D geometries (segments, elementary curves) and 3D (planes, simple surfaces), repetitive patterns, (d) integration of semantic information, (e) template matching for recognizing known structures, (f) creation and refinement of probability maps as a measure of optical (geometry, texture) and acoustic (elevation or reflectivity maps) properties. A set of geometrical and textural feature extraction algorithms is applied to the multi-sensor images and the output results are compared. We aim thus at emphasizing the geometric features correspondences (e.g., lines or different kind of curves), instead of descriptor-based individual feature matching.Source: Proceedings of meetings on acoustics 17 (2013): 1–10. doi:10.1121/1.4792225
DOI: 10.1121/1.4792225

See at: asa.scitation.org Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | arpi.unipi.it Restricted | asa.scitation.org Restricted | asadl.org Restricted | core.ac.uk Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | scitation.aip.org Restricted


2013 Report Restricted

SIMPLE - Schematico e layout della board
Bertini G., Magrini M., Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O.
This project report relates to SIMPLE Project http://simple.tuscany.it/ The SIMPLE (Sicurezza ferroviaria e Infrastruttura per la Mobilità applicate ai Passaggi a LivEllo) project aims to achieve an integrated and safe management of railway level crossings in the Smart City, providing at same time value-added services to citizens in the urban mobility domain. The SIMPLE system consists in two main components: one principally directed to the safety aspects of the railway level crossing and the other one which concerns the collection of data regarding the mobility in neighboring metropolitan roads and the provisioning of related services, such as indication of alternative routes to the drivers.Source: Project report, SIMPLE, Deliverable D.3.1.2, 2013

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2013 Journal article Restricted

Enhancement of hidden patterns in paintings using statistical analysis
Legnaioli S., Grifoni E., Lorenzetti G., Marras L., Pardini L., Palleschi V., Salerno E., Tonazzini A.
In this paper, we discuss the application of different Blind Source Separation algorithms for enhancing hidden patterns in paintings and retrieving the information there contained. A series of images was taken at different wavelengths of a painting of an unknown artist, which evidenced the presence of hidden text. The analysis of the single images did not allow retrieving the information contained in the hidden text. The application of Blind Source Separation algorithms on the other hand allowed the enhancement of the hidden pattern; in particular, the orthogonalization algorithm proved to be fast and highly efficient. Good results were also obtained applying the same algorithm on a subset of spectral images (two out of four available), demonstrating the possibility of further reducing the computational load of the algorithm while retaining a good readability of the retrieved text.Source: Journal of cultural heritage 14 (2013): S66–S70. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2012.11.013
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2012.11.013

See at: Journal of Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal of Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal of Cultural Heritage Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Journal of Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal of Cultural Heritage Restricted


2013 Journal article Open Access OPEN

ARGO Sentinel: the mobile App for reporting oil spillages at sea
Martinelli M., Moroni D., Salvetti O.
We believe that the contribution of volunteers could play a fundamental role in monitoring and protecting the environment. People at sea sighting pollution caused by oil or hydrocarbon spillages can now immediately report this using a freely downloadable mobile application. At the Signals and Images Laboratory (SI-LAB) of the Institute of Information Science and Technology of the National Research Council of Pisa (ISTI-CNR), we have developed a Marine Information System (MIS) for monitoring vessel traffic and oil spills within the Mediterranean basin. The MIS collects and integrates geotagged data related to safety and health issues of the sea from various sources (satellites, optical sensors, electronic noses, autonomous underwater vehicle systems) and provides predictive models to assist the authorities in the management of emergencies at sea. An integrant part of the MIS is represented by the data that can be collected and shared by volunteers who want to collaborate in monitoring the status of the sea. For this purpose, we have developed ARGO Sentinel, a free application for smartphones with a Geolocation System.Source: ERCIM news 93 (2013): 43–44.
Project(s): ARGOMARINE via OpenAIRE

See at: ercim-news.ercim.eu Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN

Un sistema informativo al supporto dell'esplorazione subacquea e la localizzazione di nuovi siti archeologici = An informative system to support underwater exploration and the localization of new archaeological sites
Martinelli M., Righi M., Salvetti O., Tampucci M.
In the frame of the THESAURUS project 2011-2013, financed by Regione Toscana (Italy) (framework of the FAS program 2007-2013, CIPE Deliberation, Italian government, 166/2007) an informative system has been developed in order to manage information retrieved during underwater campaigns and off-line elaborations as well as the historical-archival data: the database contains data regarding shipwrecks and carried materials, finds (such as amphorae, coins, etc.) and other contents (oil, wine, etc.), general goods and related sources. Due to the heterogeneity of the managed data, the developed system exploits, as database, an hybrid infrastructure which is composed of a relational unit, an XML unit and a semantic unit. In an automated way, using data mining algorithms, this system is queried in order to obtain information related to a probability map finalized to localize new archaeological sites. Informative system is accessible by different field research groups. A dissemination Web site is also freely accessible in order to retrieve general information stored into the system.Source: Le tecnologie del CNR per il mare / Marine Technologies, edited by Marco Faimail, pp. 147–147. Roma: CNR, 2013

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.edizioni.cnr.it Open Access


2013 Journal article Restricted

Spectroradiometric Field Surveys in Remote Sensing Practice: A Workflow Proposal, from Planning to Analysis
Villa P., Pompilio L., Boschetti M., Pepe M.
Spectroradiometric field surveys, especially when addressed at heterogeneous targets and within a complex environmental context, require careful organization and structuring. This work focuses on a proposal of an operational workflow that holds together different aspects of in situ spectral data acquisition, from planning to data analysis, and is ancillary to environmental analysis based on remote sensing. The main objective is the enhancement of the information coming from acquired spectra, which is accomplished through a set of established guidelines for: campaign planning, measurement collection, and data management. The feasibility and advantages of such approach are demonstrated through a real case scenario, covering two spectroradiometric campaigns aimed at geolithology studies and performed in September 2010 and 2011 in the Dolomites (Northern Italy), where complex environmental and variable atmospheric conditions, as well as, large target variability and spectral heterogeneity occur. The workflow here adopted allowed us to face all the challenges in order to usefully accomplish our campaigns. Issues commonly arising in spectroradiometric field activities are easily foreseen, tackled and mitigated, if necessary, while preserving a high degree of flexibility and generalization for exploiting the workflow over heterogeneous areas and application fields.Source: Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE 1 (2013): 37–51. doi:10.1109/MGRS.2013.2261257
DOI: 10.1109/mgrs.2013.2261257

See at: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine Restricted | IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine Restricted


2013 Report Restricted

Report D3.3: Metodi per il riconoscimento e l'annotazione automatica di immagini e mappe
Reggiannini M., Pascali M. A., Moroni D., Tampucci M., Salvetti O., Colombo C., Fanfani M., Bellavia F., Pazzaglia F.
This report contains a description of the software design and development activity in the framework of the Thesaurus project experimental tests. The marine environment represents a challenging context for IT experts, both for what is concerning the discovery of unknown sites and for the recovery and preservation operations. The hostile environmental conditions, unfit to human intervention, favored the increasing demand for artificial intelligence integration in the AUVs, the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in charge of survey operations. The primary purpose of our work consists in treating optical and acoustic signals in order to extract useful information about the surveyed site. We basically seek for meaningful features in the data in order to perform robust object recognition, also in case of unfavorable environmental conditions (in presence of noise, partial occlusions, etc...). The report is organized as follows: the project experimental conditions are described in section 2; in section 3 the techniques employed for a preliminary signal processing are described, paying specific attention to the difference between optical and acoustic data; the procedures performing automatic recognition and classification are described in the following 4,5 and 6 sections; finally the implemented data fusion model is described in section 7. The report contains also some of the results obtained by processing simulation data as well as the data captured during the project experimental tests.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2013

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2013 Report Restricted

Report D 3.4: Ambiente per la Navigazione Virtuale e Rendering 3D
Pascali M. A., Magrini M., Salvetti O., Reggiannini M., Moroni D., Tampucci M.
This technical report describes the design and development activity carried out in the Thesaurus project concerning the fulfillment of a virtual and immersive environment, based on the data captured during the project experimental tests. The developed software can be exploited for dissemination and education purposes.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2013

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2013 Report Open Access OPEN

Planck intermediate results. XII: diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System
Planck C., Bedini L., Salerno E.
We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system ($130^circleq lleq 230^circ$ and $-50^circleq bleq -10^circ$). Strong UV flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse foregrounds that we observe from our position inside the system and that can help us improve our knowledge of the Galactic emission. Free-free emission and anomalous microwave emission (AME) are the dominant components at low frequencies ($nu < 40 $GHz), while synchrotron emission is very smooth and faint. We separate diffuse free-free emission and AME from synchrotron emission and thermal dust emission by using Planck data, complemented by ancillary data, using the "Correlated Component Analysis" (CCA) component separation method and we compare with the results of cross-correlation of foreground templates with the frequency maps. We estimate the electron temperature $T_{rm e}$ from H$alpha$ and free-free emission using two methods (temperature-temperature plot and cross-correlation) and we consistently obtain $T_{rm e}$ ranging from 7000 to 2000 K for a dust absorption fraction of $f_{rm d}=0$--0.5. We estimate the frequency spectrum of the diffuse AME and we recover a peak frequency (in flux density units) of $25.5pm 1.5$ GHz. We verify the reliability of this result with realistic simulations that include the presence of biases in the spectral model for the AME and in the free-free template. By combining physical models for vibrational and rotational dust emission and adding the constraints from the thermal dust spectrum from Planck and IRAS we are able to get a good description of the frequency spectrum of the AME for plausible values of the local density and radiation field.

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Report Open Access OPEN

Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation
Salerno E., Platania P.
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about beta = -4 to -2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequency components, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (beta < -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of beta > -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2013

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Report Open Access OPEN

Planck 2013 results. II. The low frequency instrument data processing
Salerno E., Platania P.
We describe the data processing pipeline employed by the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize the full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry (TM) packets through to the production of cleaned calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the -20 dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2013

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Report Open Access OPEN

Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
Salerno E., Platania P.
The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large scale anomalies in the CMB temperature distribution detected earlier by WMAP are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussian statistics of the CMB anisotropies. There is some tension between Planck and WMAP results; this is evident in the power spectrum and results for some of the cosmology parameters. In general, Planck results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Because the analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet as mature as the analysis of temperature data, polarization results are not released. We do, however, illustrate the robust detection of the E-mode polarization signal around CMB hot- and cold-spots.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2013

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Report Closed Access

ARGOMARINE - WMS servers for ARGOMARINE products
Tampucci M., Pieri G., Moroni D., Salvetti O., Reggiannini M., Martinelli M., Colantonio S.
This report will provide the specification and description of the Web Map Service (WMS) servers implemented and used for the architecture of the Marine Information System (MIS), and for the delivery and usage of the ARGOMARINE products. The description of existing WMSs will be provided, along with the WMSs needed for the ARGOMARINE platform. The specification for the implementation, access, and delivery of data to and from the platform will be givenSource: Project report, ARGOMARINE, Deliverable 7.6, 2013
Project(s): ARGOMARINE via OpenAIRE

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2013 Report Closed Access

ARGOMARINE - Operational documentation for the ARGO-Geomatrix specific geopositioning devices
Pieri G., Moroni D., Tampucci M., Salvetti O., Reggiannini M., Colantonio S., Martinelli M.
This report provides Operational documentation for the specific geopositioning devices modelled, realized and integrated through the Integrated Communication System (ICS) into the ARGOMARINE platform. Following the design model described in D6.4 and the final integration performed, the documentation will describe the devices realized in the project and their operative specifications, according both to the data flow control model for the distributed computing devices and to the integrated model of the MIS architecture.Source: Project report, ARGOMARINE, Deliverable 6.7, 2013
Project(s): ARGOMARINE via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2013 Report Closed Access

ITACA - Metodi di digital watermarking per la protezione del copyright di immagini di documenti o opere d'arte diffuse in rete
Salerno, E.
This document integrates deliverable R6.1, ITACA project (POR FSE Calabria 2007-2013): A report on pros and cons of different classes of invisible watermarking techniques, in view of the project scope. We report some basic features on invisible watermarking systems for copyright protection, and give a first assessment of the robustness of two existing algorithms.Source: Project report, ITACA, 2013

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2013 Journal article Restricted

A remote sensing approach to monitor the conservation status of lacustrine Phragmites australis beds
Villa P., Laini A., Bresciani M., Bolpagni R.
Phragmites australis populations in native areas have been gradually declining since the mid-20th century. We developed a logical approach based on remote sensing to monitor the conservation status of P. australis beds in response to environmental gradients and orient future management actions in Lake Garda (northern Italy). During the 2010 growing season we collected data on: (i) the structural and functional status of seven P. australis beds and (ii) land cover in a 50-m buffer around each bed, and we tested four different vegetation indices (VIs) derived from a multi-temporal and multisensor dataset. Double hierarchical clustering based on the VI statistics and environmental variables (morphological, functional and land-use) showed a good consistency between the outputs of the vigor-function analysis and the environmental classification of the P. australis beds considered. Overall, the bed's area was the most influential factor in the data clustering procedures, followed by the descriptors derived from the enhanced vegetation index. Our results confirmed the importance of temporal characteristics of remote sensing data to assess the conservation status of common reed beds and proved the sensitivity of VIs and derived descriptors to local environmental conditions within a homogeneous littoral area. This study supports the utility of remote sensing for monitoring riparian vegetation and analyzing the spatial and temporal response of P. australis populations to human pressure and management actions.Source: Wetlands ecology and management (Dordr., Online) 21 (2013): 399–416. doi:10.1007/s11273-013-9311-9
DOI: 10.1007/s11273-013-9311-9

See at: Wetlands Ecology and Management Restricted | Wetlands Ecology and Management Restricted | Wetlands Ecology and Management Restricted | Wetlands Ecology and Management Restricted | Wetlands Ecology and Management Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2013 Contribution to book Restricted

Data harmonisation in the context of the European spatial data infrastructure: the HUMBOLDT project framework and scenarios
Villa P., Molina R., Gomarasca M. A.
Harmonised geoinformation is a basic need for fulfilling the task of creating a Spatial data Infrastructure reliable and efficient, in which different data sources and different services for discovery, portrayal and retrieval of geodata is a crucial asset. At the European level, the road to an ESDI follows the guidelines contained in the ISPIRE Directive of the EC. The HUMBOLDT project, started in October 2006 and supported by the European Community has the aim of implementing a Framework for harmonisation of data and services in geoinformation domain, under the INSPIRE Directive and in the context of GMES Initiative. The two-pronged ap-proach of HUMBOLDT comprises a technical side of framework development and an application side of scenario testing and validation. As the outcomes of implemented harmonisational framework grows mature, the application side of the project grows more and more prominent. Among the HUM-BOLDT application Scenarios designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the Framework there is the one covering Protected Areas themes and use cases. Protected Areas Scenario aims to transform geoinformation, managed by park authorities, into a seamless flow that combines multiple informa-tion sources from different governance levels (European, national , regional) , and exploits this newly combined information for the purposes of planning, management and tourism promotion. Alongside, another Application scenario for HUMBOLDT project is described: the Ocean Scenario, which is essentially a centrally running geoportal that allows users to view oil spill information in 3 regions over European Seas, either in report form, or just the harmonized data sources upon request, making use of the HUMBOLDT framework components and providing an overall portrayal interface.Source: Earth Observation of Global Changes (EOGC), edited by Jukka M. Krisp, Liqiu Meng, Roland Pail, Uwe Stilla, pp. 179–191. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32714-8_12

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2013 Contribution to journal Restricted

A Proactive System for Oil Spills and Marine Environment Monitoring
Tampucci M., Martinelli M., Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O., Villa P.
Oil pollutions impact the environment, the economy and the quality of life for coastal inhabitants. The increasing importance of petroleum products and the list of oil spill events in last two decades raised the concern on maritime safety and environmental protection. Indeed, annually, on average 1,300,000 t of oil entered the oceans during the 1990s with tanker vessel spills accounting for 100,000 t, run-off 140,000 t, and pipeline leaks just 12,000 t. Aside from natural seeps, which contribute an estimated 600,000 t or ~45% of total emissions, other important sources include vessel operational discharges. For these reasons, there has been an increasing interest in frameworks for remotely detect oil spill at sea and several technological advances were made, especially under the propulsion of catastrophic events, like the Deep Water Horizon spill, during which several remote sensing technologies moved up to the technological readiness scale.Source: Bollettino di geofisica teorica ed applicata (Online) 54 (2013): 222–223.
Project(s): ARGOMARINE via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted | www2.ogs.trieste.it Restricted


2013 Conference article Restricted

Anthropogenic carbon stocks analysis in sparsely urbanized areas using remote sensing: a case study
Villa P., Scalenghe R., Malucelli F.
Anthropogenic carbon stocks in urbanized areas is a topic of growing importance at both local and regional scale nowadays, but its assessment is subjects to difficulties due to lack of data and spatial heterogeneity of the target. Remote sensing of urban areas has demonstrated its usefulness in assessing phenomena such as soil sealing and surface imperviousness, which are considered to be effective indicators of urbanization. This work presents a preliminary study of mid resolution satellite data capabilities in providing information about anthropogenic carbon stocks over the area of Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. This has been done through a dual approach consisting of: (1) a direct way of deriving a proxy for carbon stocks assessment via imperviousness surfaces mapping and (2) an indirect way of characterizing urbanization patterns by means of land cover classification. Results show interesting correlation pattern between reference anthropogenic carbon-organic carbon ratio values and both imperviousness map (R2 up to 0.63) and urban features cover map (R2 up to 0.75), with more evident matching in correspondence of sparsely urbanized areas.Source: JURSE 2013 - Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2013, pp. 119–122, Sao Paulo, April 21st-23rd, 2013
DOI: 10.1109/jurse#.2013.6550680

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2013 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Envisat radar altimetry for coastal and inland waters: case-study of the Concordia ship to understand non-water targets using a tomographic technique
Gómez-enri J., Scozzari A., Soldovieri F., Vignudelli S.
Satellite altimetry systems use a nadir-looking radar to sense the water surface, in order to estimate water heights. Non-water targets (e.g. land, ships) are normally treated as contaminants of the pure radar signal reflected by the water surface. Despite the native low resolution of conventional altimetric platforms, there's still the possibility to extract information about eventual land or artificial scatterers inside the antenna footprint, giving the opportunity to better understand how to detect and eventually remove the associated electromagnetic artifacts. In this paper, we use a tomographic technique to retrieve useful information about the location and geometry of such particular targets. We show results from a case-study based on the Costa Concordia cruise ship, which smashed its hull on 13th of January 2012 against the coast of Giglio Island, a tiny piece of land in the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy) of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The ship is a strong artificial reflector located off-nadir with respect to the closest Envisat track (orbit 274) to the island. A signature in the Envisat waveforms due to the presence of the Concordia ship is revealed by a change-detection analysis applied to the tomographic reconstruction of the scene observed by the radar. The geometric characteristics of the ship and of the apparent electromagnetic target described in this paper are well compatible with the Concordia ship in its final position. The tomographic technique is therefore a promising tool to make a mapping of targets in coastal and inland waters, and to enhance the possibilities to mitigate such effects when dealing with water height measurements in the presence of such targets.Source: International Water Technology Journal (Print) 3 (2013): 60–69.

See at: iwtj.info Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access