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2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN
Experimenting an embedded-sensor network for early warning of natural risks due to fast failures along railways
Fantini A., Magrini M., Martino S., Moroni D., Pieri G., Prestininzi A., Salvetti O.
This paper deals with a project for real-time monitoring of railway tracks to detect events, such as fast failures from natural risks, which may threaten the transit of trains. The paper describes a network of smart sensors for early warning of these endangering events. Three main types of fast-failure events involving railways were identified: sinkhole, rock and debris falls. A case study on a known test site and experimentation with various scenarios were carried out with a view to developing algorithms capable of spotting and localising them. Results demonstrate the good performance of the network in monitoring the investigated events.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 85–91, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted

2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN
Signal processing for underwater archaeology
Moroni D., Pascali M. A., Reggiannini M., Salvetti O.
About three million wrecks lie scattered on the oceans' seafloors. This huge patrimony is actually threatened by criminal enterprises having advanced tools available for localization and rescue operations. ARROWS, a currently ongoing EU FP7 project, is an example of the effective commitment between cultural institutions and the scientific community towards the safeguard of the sunken cultural heritage. ARROWS is devoted to advanced technologies and tools for mapping, diagnosing, cleaning, and securing underwater and coastal archaeological sites. A fleet of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) will be manufactured with the purpose of surveying the seabed and sensing the underwater environment by means of proper payload sensors (digital cameras, side scan and multi-beam sonars). This paper describes a set of underwater scene understanding procedures specifically tailored to the purposes addressed in the ARROWS frame. In particular the data collected by the AUVs during the acquisition campaigns will be processed to detect targets of interest located on the seabed. The main approach adopted in the object detection procedures is to highlight the amount of regularity in the captured data. This can be pursued by exploiting computer vision algorithms that perform i) the recognition of geometrical curves ii) the classification of seafloor areas by means of textural pattern analysis iii) a large scale map generation to return an overall view of the site and iv) a reliable object recognition process performing the integration of the available multi modal information. Moreover the collected raw data together with the analysis output results will be stored to allow for an offline deep analysis of the archaeological findings. This will represent a powerful tool to be used by expert users or by the general public to enjoy the underwater cultural heritage.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 80–84, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015
Project(s): ARROWS via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted

2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN
PRIAR using a graph segmentation method
Righi M., D'Acunto M., Salvetti O.
Recently, we have suggested a simple and general-purpose method able to combine high-resolution analysis with the classification and identification of components of microscopy imaging. The method named PRIAR (Pattern Recognition Image Augumented Resolution) is a tool developed by the authors that gives the possibility to enhance spatial and photometric resolution of low-res images. The implemented algorithm follows the scheme: 1) image classification; 2) blind super-resolution on single frame; 3) pattern-analysis; 4) reconstruction of the discovered pattern. In this paper, we suggest some improvements of the PRIAR algorithm, in particular, the definition of a segmentation method which is based on homomorphism between a processed image and a graph describing the image itself, able to identify object of interest in complex patterns. The case study is the identification of organs inside biological cells acquired with Atomic Force Microscopy Technique.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 46–51, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted

2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN
Lightweight computer vision methods for traffic flow monitoring on low power embedded sensors
Magrini M., Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O.
Nowadays pervasive monitoring of traffic flows in urban environment is a topic of great relevance, since the information it is possible to gather may be exploited for a more efficient and sustainable mobility. In this paper, we address the use of smart cameras for assessing the level of service of roads and early detect possible congestion. In particular, we devise a lightweight method that is suitable for use on low power and low cost sensors, resulting in a scalable and sustainable approach to flow monitoring over large areas. We also present the current prototype of an ad hoc device we designed and report experimental results obtained during a field test.Source: VISAPP 2015 - 10th International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications, pp. 663–670, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015
Project(s): ICSI via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted

2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN
Virtual immersive environments for underwater archaeological exploration
Magrini M., Pascali M. A., Reggiannini M., Salvetti O., Tampucci M.
In this paper we describe a system designed for the fruition of underwater archaeological sites. It is under development in the ARROWS project (end August 2015, funded by the European Commission), along with other advanced technologies and tools for mapping, diagnosing, cleaning, and securing underwater and coastal archaeological sites. The main objective is to make easier the management of the heterogeneous set of data available for each underwater archaeological site (archival and historical data, 3D measurements, images, videos, sonograms, georeference, texture and shape of artefacts, others). All the data will be represented in a 3D interactive and informative scene, making the archaeological site accessible to experts (for research purposes, e.g. classification of artefacts by template matching) and to the general public (for dissemination of the underwater cultural heritage).Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 53–57, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015
Project(s): ARROWS via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted

2015 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications
Gurevich I., Niemann H., Radig B., Salvetti O.
The IMTA-5 workshop continues the successful series of the IMTA workshops associated with VISAPP conferences and is devoted to modern mathematical techniques of image mining and to image analysis applications in different fields including natural and social sciences, engineering, technology and industry, medicine and others. Automation of image mining is one of the most important strategic goals in image analysis, recognition and un- derstanding both in scientific and technological aspects. The main goals are developing and applying of mathematical theory for constructing image models and representations allowable by efficient pattern recognition algorithms and for constructing standardized re- presentation and selection of image analysis transforms. Taking as a strategic goal the automated image mining it is necessary to provide image analysis professionals and final users with the following opportunities: - automated design, testing and adaptation of techniques and algorithms for image recognition, estimation and understanding; - automated selection of techniques and algorithms for image recognition, estimation and understanding; - automated testing of the raw data quality and suitability for solving image recognition problems; - standard technological schemes for image recognition, estimation, understanding and retrieval.Source: digital library: SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.scitepress.org Open Access

2015 Report Restricted
e-SHS - Alcuni risultati ottenuti
Ferro E., Barsocchi P., Salvetti O., Magrini M., Delmastro F., Matteucci I., Esposito M., Ciampi M., Pettiti G., Crocco L., Soldovieri F., Catapano I., Giannini F., De Martino M., Burzagli L., Capozzi R., Attolico G., Cortellessa G., Cosi P., Paglieri F., Trivella M. G.
Negli ultimi anni, la valutazione del sonno ha acquisito una notevole attenzione e rilievo tra i medici e i ricercatori. L'obiettivo di ottenere i dati del sonno in studi su larga scala è stato quasi raggiunto nel corso degli ultimi anni. Questi studi dimostrano che è possibile identificare i disturbi del sonno per mezzo di una cronistoria del sonno, tra cui i tempi e la regolarità di andare a dormire, i risvegli notturni, il tempo di sveglia della mattina etc. I disturbi del sonno nei pazienti anziani possono essere classificati in due gruppi: disturbi del sonno primari e secondari. I disturbi del sonno primari includono sleep disordered breathing (SDB), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), restless leg syndrome (RLS), and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS). I disturbi del sonno secondari sono causa di malattie con dolore cronico e disagio, tra questi l'urinazione frequente durante la notte, dispnea e farmaci che interferisce con il sonno etc [1].Source: Project report, e-SHS, Deliverable D2, 2015

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted

2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN
A non-stationary density model to separate overlapped texts in degraded documents
Tonazzini A., Savino P., Salerno E.
We address the problem of the removal of a text superimposed to a more important one, in a document image, considering the two instances of canceling back-to-front interferences from recto and verso images of archival documents and of recovering the erased text in palimpsests from multispectral images. Both problems are approached through a model where the ideal images of the two texts are considered as individual source patterns, mixed through some parametric operator. To cope with occlusions, ink saturation, and space variability of the mixing operator, a data model for this problem should be nonlinear and space variant. Here, we show that if a pointwise non-stationarity is allowed, a linear model can compensate for the lack of a suitable nonlinearity and for other modeling errors.Source: Signal, image and video processing (Print) 9 (2015): 155–164. doi:10.1007/s11760-014-0735-3
DOI: 10.1007/s11760-014-0735-3

See at: Signal Image and Video Processing Open Access | link.springer.com Open Access | Signal Image and Video Processing Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access

2015 Report Open Access OPEN
Architettura ISTI per il progetto INTEROMICS
Caudai C., Righi M., Tampucci M.
Il progetto INTEROMICS (Sviluppo di una piattaforma integrata per l'applicazione delle scienze "omiche" alla definizione dei biomarcatori e profili diagnostici, predittivi e teranostici) prevede lo sviluppo delle competenze per l'intera filiera delle "scienze omiche", con particolare riferimento alla genomica, proteomica, bioinformatica e system biology. Il laboratorio concentra le sue attività nel campo della bioinformatica e dell'analisi delle immagini per impieghi in biologia.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access

2015 Report Open Access OPEN
Real time system for gesture tracking in psycho-motorial rehabilitation
Magrini M., Pieri G.
In the last years sensor based interactive systems for helping the treatment of learning difficulties and disabilities in children appeared on the specialized literature (Ould Mohamed and Courbulay, 2006) and (Kozima et al. 2005). Our system is based on real-time video processing techniques. The use of video-processing techniques adds more parameters which can be used for the exact localization and details about the human gestures to be detected and recognized. By using the implemented software interface, the operator can link these extracted video features to sounds synthesized in real time, following a predefined schema. The proposed system has been experimented as case study, in a real-patients test campaign over a set of patient affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in order to provide them an increased interaction towards external environment and trying to reduce their pathological isolation (Riva et al., 2013).Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2015

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2015 Other Restricted
Un apparato per la spettrometria di linea
Righi M., Martinelli M., Benassi A., Chimenti M., Magrini M., Colantonio S., Salvetti O.
The work describes an apparatus for measuring the spectra of light emitted from a linear array of areas, set on the surface of an object under examination. The light emitted from areas is sent from a target on the entrance slit of a dispersion element, which contains a grid and two prisms, which deflect the light at different angles as a function of wavelength; the light rays emerging from the dispersion device strike the sensor area of a monochrome camera, and is thus obtained a spectral image that can be saved and processed. The dispersion element is aligned with the camera so that each column of the image defines the spectrum of the light emitted from the corresponding captured area. The work shows the procedure of processing that allows you to transform raw data into the camera output (luminance profiles added depending on the line) in values of transmittance or reflectance as a function of wavelength. This apparatus can measure spectra in the range 380-780 nm, with a spectral resolution of about 5 nm; the size of the areas examined, and then the spatial resolution, is fully adjustable.

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted

2015 Contribution to book Restricted
Adhesion and Friction Contributions to Cell Motility
D'Acunto M., Danti S., Salvetti O.
One challenge in biotribology is a complete explanation of cell motility. As the basic unit of life, cells are complex biological systems. Cells must express genetic information to perform their specialized functions: synthesize, modify, sort, store and transport biomolecule, covert different forms of energy, transduce signals, maintain internal structures and respond to external environments. All of these processes involve mechanical, chemical and physical processes. Mechanical forces play a fundamental role in cell migration, where contractile forces are generated within the cell and pull the cell body forward. On the other side, mechanical forces and deformations induce biological response in cells, and many normal and diseased conditions of cells are dependent upon or regulated by their mechanical environment. The effects of applied forces depend on the type of cells and how the forces are applied on, transmitted into, and distributed within cells. Traction forces exerted by cells on substrates can now be determined with a good degree of accuracy, but the intimate relation between cell shape and traction mechanics requires further qualitative investigation. In this chapter, we overview measurements strategies and the models for quantifying adhesion forces and friction developed during cell-cell and cell-substrate interaction during migration.Source: Fundamentals of Friction and Wear on the Nanoscale, edited by Enrico Gnecco & Ernst Meyer, pp. 669–698, 2015
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10560-4

See at: doi.org Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted

2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN
MUSCLE Working Group International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding
Trocan M., Salerno E., Cetin E.
The Institut Superieur d'Electronique de Paris (ISEP) hosted the International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM 2014), organized by the ERCIM Working Group on Multimedia Understanding through Semantics, Computation and Learning (Muscle), 1-2 November 2014.Source: ERCIM news 100 (2015): 52–53.

See at: ercim-news.ercim.eu Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access

2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN
Optimum linear regression in additive Cauchy-Gaussian noise
Chen J. Y., Kuruoglu E. E., So H. C.
We study the estimation problem of linear regression in the presence of a new impulsive noise model, which is a sum of Cauchy and Gaussian random variables in time domain. The probability density function (PDF) of this mixture noise, referred to as the Voigt profile, is derived from the convolution of the Cauchy and Gaussian PDFs. To determine the linear regression parameters, the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is developed first. Since the Voigt profile suffers from a complicated analytical form, an M-estimator with the pseudo-Voigt function is also derived. In our algorithm development, both scenarios of known and unknown density parameters are considered. For the latter case, we estimate the density parameters by utilizing the empirical characteristic function prior to applying the MLE. Simulation results show that the performance of both proposed methods can attain the Cramér-Rao lower bound. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.Source: Signal processing (Print) 106 (2015): 312–318. doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2014.07.028
DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2014.07.028

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Signal Processing Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.sciencedirect.com Restricted

2015 Report Open Access OPEN
MobiWallet - Dissemination Pack (1st Generation)
Carlino M., Moroni D., Pardini F., Tampucci M., Fell M., Arrazola J.
This deliverable describes all the activities carried out towards an optimal dissemination of project aims and achievements. In addition, it contains and discusses the first generation of all the dissemination material that has been prepared during the first ten months of project life; Progetto: Mobility and Transport Digital Wallet Acronimo: MobiWallet Tipo Progetto: EUSource: Project report, MobiWallet, Deliverable D6.1.1, pp.1–43, 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access

2015 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN
Nanowear of polymers
D'Acunto M., Dinelli F., Pingue P.
The use of viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, constantly increases in the field of nanotechnology. These materials are softer than metallic and inorganic ones, and, because of that, they are easier to deform and wear off. The wear mechanisms occurring for viscoelastic materials are rather complex, and, generally, present more complications for a direct investigation with respect to metals or ceramics materials. With the advent of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), well characterized forces can be applied to a surface with a nanometer-scale spatial resolution. In particular Atomic ForceMicroscopy (AFM), working at high contact forces, can significantly modify many surfaces. Polymers are soft enough to be modified by hard AFM tips, such as those of silicon, silicon nitride or diamond. For these reasons, the AFM is today the main tool employed to investigate wear occurrence on polymer surfaces. The wear of a polymer surface caused by an AFM tip in a regime of single asperity contact is an articulate process that depends on conditions such as, namely, the applied forces, the tip shape, size and the relative velocity. Since the influence of all these parameters is in close connection with the sample properties, one can expect a dependence of the wearing process on the mechanical properties of the sample surfaces. These properties can vary significantly from the bulk properties, if cross linking is made or, on contrary, residual solvents are present in the specimens. This chapter is divided in three sections following a general introduction. Specifically, the first section deals with wear induced by means of AFM tips to study the mechanical properties of films at the nanoscale; the second one regards the exploitation of wear for the creation of nanolithographic patterns; the last one is finally dedicated to an applicative field such as the characterization ofwear of polymers for biomedical applications at the meso- and nanoscales.Source: Fundamentals of Friction and Wear on the Nanoscale, edited by Enrico Gnecco, Ernst Meyer, pp. 545–587, 2015
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10560-4_24

See at: Archivio istituzionale della Ricerca - Scuola Normale Superiore Open Access | doi.org Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted

2015 Report Open Access OPEN
InterOmics - Reconstructing 3D chromatin structure from chromosome conformation capture data.
Caudai C., Salerno E., Zoppè M., Tonazzini A.
Dna is the central repository of information to keep cells and organisms alive. In human cells, the 46 chromosomes amount to a length of about 2 m, with a diameter of 2 nm, and are packed in a way that allows for access by transcription, replication and repair machinery, fitting within a globular nucleus with a radius of 5000 to 10000 nm. Efficiency of packing is obtained by several levels of packing mechanisms (Figure 1), both general (due to general principles, irrespective of Dna sequence) and speci fic, i.e. mediated by proteins that recognize specifi c motives (sequences) and bring in close proximity parts of Dna that may be very distant in the genomic sequence. In both cases, general packing and specifi c aggregation, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely described or understood. The fi rst level, mediated by histon octamers, produces a ber of 11 nm, which in turn is organized into a 30 nm-wide structure. Further packing is at work in cells, and the research community engaged in the study of chromatin conformation is producing increasing knowledge that will finally allow for a clear vision of the nuclear machinery that regulates Dna metabolism.Source: Project report, InterOmics, 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted

2015 Software Unknown
PRIAR Tool - Pattern Recognition Image Augmented Resolution. A tool for image analysis
Righi M., D'Acunto M., Salvetti O.
PRIAR is a software package that specializes Matlab functions for the analysis of the images. PRIAR comes from the idea that in a picture representing an object in space information can be processed to identify and model specific volumes, while improving image resolution. PRIAR track volumes in automatic mode using super-resolution algorithms and pattern-recognition. The results calculated using the super-resolution and pattern-recongition are used to improve the image information andandone to reconstruct the morphology and inserting meta tags that characterize the functionality.

See at: CNR ExploRA

2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN
Theory of near-field detection of core-gold nanoshells inside biosystems
D'Acunto M., Cricenti A., Luce M., Dinarelli S.
Metal nanoshells composed by a dielectric core with a thin gold layer are stimulating growing interests due to the unique optical, electric and magnetic properties exhibited by the local field enhancement near the metal - dielectric core interface due to strong local plasmon resonance and the high tunability of such resonance as a function of shape and core-material. These unique characteristics have found promising applications in a wide range of areas, such as biosensing, optical communication and medicine. In this paper, we developed a theoretical and numerical simulation based on a near-field approach to study the possibility to identify nanoshells inside mouse cells. Taking advantage from the characteristic near-infrared transparency window of many biological systems, i.e. the low light absorption coefficient of biological systems between 750-1100nm, we show the possibility to identify and detect 100-150nm diameter gold nanoshells inside the animal cells.Source: Computer modelling and new technologies 19 (2015): 29–34.

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.cmnt.lv Open Access

2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN
Qualche considerazione sugli schemi mentali sottesi all'approccio darwiniano
Beltrame R.
Brief notes on the mental scheme that underlies the Darwinian approach.Source: Methodologia (Milano) WP 288 (2015): 1–4.

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.methodologia.it Open Access