Retrieval and classification methods for textured 3D models: a comparative study Biasotti S. M., Cerri A., Aono M., Hamza A. B., Garro V., Giachetti A., Giorgi D., Godil A. A., Li G. C., Sanada C., Spagnuolo M., Tatsuma A., Velasco Forero S. This paper presents a comparative study of six methods for the retrieval and classification of textured 3D models, which have been selected as representative of the state of the art. To better analyse and control how methods deal with specific classes of geometric and texture deformations, we built a collection of 572 synthetic textured mesh models, in which each class includes multiple texture and geometric modifications of a small set of null models. Results show a challenging, yet lively, scenario and also reveal interesting insights into how to deal with texture information according to different approaches, possibly working in the CIELab as well as in modifications of the RGB colour space.Source: The visual computer 32 (2016): 217–241. doi:10.1007/s00371-015-1146-3 DOI: 10.1007/s00371-015-1146-3 Project(s): IQMULUS , VISIONAIR Metrics:
Non-conventional electrochemical and optical sensor systems Di Natale C., Dini F., Scozzari A. Electroanalytical methods are a common tool for the assessment of chemical peculiarities of aqueous solutions. Also, the analysis of water based on optical sensors is a mature field of research, which already led to industrial applications and standard laboratory practices. Nevertheless, scientific literature is still offering new sensor techniques and innovative measurement approaches in both fields. In particular, for fast characterisation of liquids and change detection applications in a continuous monitoring context, the technology of taste sensors based on electrochemical techniques is still witnessing a growing interest. Such devices are often defined as "electronic tongues" or "e-tongues". In addition, emerging inexpensive and portable devices with optical-sensing capabilities can be used for monitoring applications with a novel approach. This chapter gives an overview of recent techniques developed in both fields and presents several potential applications and case studies that deal with the context of water quality assessment. A brief introduction about the basics of each measurement technology, even if not exhaustive, is also provided.Source: Threats to the Quality of Groundwater Resources: Prevention and Control, edited by A. Scozzari, E. Dotsika. London: Springer, 2016 DOI: 10.1007/698_2013_254 Metrics:
A proactive system for maritime environment monitoring Moroni D., Pieri G., Tampucci M., Salvetti O. The ability to remotely detect and monitor oil spills is becoming increasingly important due to the high demand of oil-based products. Indeed, shipping routes are becoming very crowded and the likelihood of oil slick occurrence is increasing. In this frame, a fully integrated remote sensing system can be a valuable monitoring tool. We propose an integrated and interoperable system able to monitor ship traffic and marine operators, using sensing capabilities from a variety of electronic sensors, along with geo-positioning tools, and through a communication infrastructure. Our system is capable of transferring heterogeneous data, freely and seamlessly, between different elements of the information system (and their users) in a consistent and usable form. The system also integrates a collection of decision support services providing proactive functionalities. Such services demonstrate the potentiality of the system in facilitating dynamic links among different data, models and actors, as indicated by the performed field tests.Source: Marine pollution bulletin. 102 (2016): 316–322. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.045 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.045 Project(s): ARGOMARINE Metrics:
Digital restoration of ancient color manuscripts from geometrically misaligned recto-verso pairs Savino P., Tonazzini A. We propose a fast automatic procedure for registration and restoration of images of recto-verso pairsof color manuscripts affected by bleed-through distortion. The registration algorithm assumes a rigidprojective deformation of a side with respect to the other. The coefficients of the geometric transformationare computed from a large number of pairs of matching points, automatically detected by exploiting theestimates of local shifts between pairs of small patches. We validate the efficiency of the registrationalgorithm through the performance of a restoration method based on a model that relates each coupleof corresponding pixels in the two images, and thus requiring a very accurate alignment of the twosides. The experiments show that this combined procedure of registration plus restoration can providean excellent removal of the bleed-through pattern, while leaving unaltered the salient features of theoriginal manuscript.Source: Journal of cultural heritage 19 (2016): 511–521. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2015.11.005 DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2015.11.005 Metrics:
Building a digital library containing digital elaborations of ancient documents Debole F., Savino P., Tonazzini A. Digital archives containing digitized images and detailed descriptions of cultural heritage objects are of primary importance in order to guarantee the preservation and to foster the fruition of many fragile artifacts of our culture and history. Digital processing of these images is frequently needed in order to improve their readability, to correct degradations and damages, and to analyze their contents. This paper presents a metadata schema and a metadata editor supporting the description and the archiving of all elaboration activities performed. The archive allows one to perform content based searches of the original object's descriptions as well as of the results of the elaboration activities.Source: Tenth International Conference on Digital Information Management, pp. 124–131, Jeju Island, South Korea, 21-23/10/2015 DOI: 10.1109/icdim.2015.7381855 Metrics:
Computational estimation of chromosome structure Caudai C., Salerno E. Research performed at ISTI-CNR in the framework of the national Flagship Project InterOmics includes the development of algorithms to reconstruct the chromosome structure from "chromosome conformation capture" data. One algorithm now being tested has already produced interesting results. Unlike most popular techniques, it does not derive a classical distance-to-geometry problem from the original contact data, and applies an efficient multiresolution approach to the genome under study.Source: ERCIM news 104 (2016): 21–22.
Variance analysis of unbiased least lp-norm estimator in non-Gaussian noise Chen Y., So H. C., Kuruoglu E. E. Modeling time and space series in various areas of science and engineering require the values of parameters of interest to be estimated from the observed data. It is desirable to analyze the performance of estimators in an elegant manner without the need for extensive simulations and/or experiments. Among various performance measures, variance is the most basic one for unbiased estimators. In this paper, we focus on the estimator based on the â,,"p-norm minimization in the presence of zero-mean symmetric non-Gaussian noise. Four representative noise models, namely, Î±-stable, generalized Gaussian, Student's t and Gaussian mixture processes, are investigated, and the corresponding variance expressions are derived for linear and nonlinear parameter estimation problems at pZ1. The optimal choice of p for different noise environments is studied, where the global optimality and sensitivity analyses are also provided. The developed formulas are verified by computer simulations and are compared with the Cramér-Rao lower bound.Source: Signal processing (Print) 122 (2016): 190–203. doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2015.12.003 DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2015.12.003 Metrics:
Rüzgar Hizi Öngörüsü: ÇeÅ?me Yarimadasina BakiÅ? (Wind Speed Prediction: case of Cesme Peninsula) Karakus O., Altinkaya M. A., Kuruoglu E. E. In this work we descrive our studies in modelling and predicting wind speed in the Cesme Peninsula of Izmir, the wind map of which is now available. In particular we propose a polynomial autoregressive model and compare its performance with state of the art methods.Source: Rüzgar Hizi Öngörüsü: ÇeÅ?me Yarimadasina BakiÅ? (Wind Speed Prediction: case of Cesme Peninsula) 2 (2016): 22–26.
Measurement of liquid film distribution in near-horizontal pipes with an array of wire probes Andreussi P., Pitton E., Ciandri P., Picciaia D., Vignali A., Margarone M., Scozzari A. A test section consisting of a circumferential array of conductance probes has been developed to measure the thickness distribution around the pipe wall of a liquid layer flowing in near horizontal pipes. When the film thickness is known, the array can be employed to measure the local film flow rate by injecting a high conductivity tracer into the liquid flowing at pipe wall.The test section consists of a short pipe made of a non-conducting material installed in a flow rig designed to operate at an appreciable pressure (40 bar). The flow loop is made of metallic pipes connected to the electrical earth. The conductance probes are made of three parallel, rigid wires spaced along the flow direction and are used to measure the height or the electrical conductivity of the liquid layer. The three-electrode geometry is aimed at minimizing current losses toward earth. The simultaneous operation of all the probes of the array, without multiplexing, allows a substantial reduction of current dispersion and a good circumferential resolution of film thickness or conductivity measurements. The probe geometry may generate an appreciable disturbance to the gas-liquid interface. This aspect of the proposed method has been studied with an experimental and numerical investigation relative to free falling liquid layers.Source: Flow measurement and instrumentation 47 (2016): 71–82. doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.12.007 DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.12.007 Metrics:
Smart cameras for ITS in urban environment Magrini M., Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O. Fully automatic video and image analysis from traffic monitoring cameras is a fast-emerging field based on computer vision techniques with a growing impact on intelligent transport systems (ITS). This chapter first envisages applications of smart cameras and visual sensor network (VSN) to urban scenarios, highlighting specific challenges and peculiarities. Embedded vision nodes are introduced and a brief survey of existing hardware solutions is provided, and the implementation of general computer vision algorithms on smart cameras and VSN is then addressed. The chapter identifies four different scopes that can be targeted thanks to video-surveillance based systems, namely safety and security, law enforcement, billing and traffic monitoring and management. The chapter gives a brief overview of each of them. It also presents the design and development of a sensor node prototype based on VSN concepts.Source: Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications, edited by Asier Perallos, Unai Hernandez-Jayo, Enrique Onieva, Ignacio Julio García-Zuazola, pp. 167–188, 2016 DOI: 10.1002/9781118894774.ch9 Metrics:
Threats to the Quality of Groundwater Resources: Prevention and Control Scozzari A., Dotsika E. This book focuses on scientific and technological aspects of groundwater-resources assessment and surveillance. It describes relevant risks and investigates selected techniques for the monitoring and mitigation of the individuated threats to groundwater quality. The authors discuss the concepts of groundwater-resources protection and offer examples of both geogenic and anthropogenic degradation of groundwater quality, such as heavy metals from mining activities and natural water-rock interactions, as well as risk of contamination due to geological CO2 storage practices etc. The volume also covers non-invasive monitoring techniques and briefly addresses innovative sensor technologies for the online assessment of water quality. Furthermore, the role played by geochemical techniques, the potential of environmental isotopes and the support provided by physical modelling are highlighted. The chapters guide the reader through various viewpoints, according to the diverse disciplines involved, without aiming to be exhaustive, but instead picking representative topics for their relevance in the context of groundwater protection and control. This book will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, policy-makers and stakeholders at various levels.DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-48596-5 Metrics:
Reconstruction of 3D chromatin structure from chromosome conformation capture data (Release 2.0) Salerno E., Caudai C. This Python code provides an estimate of the 3D structure of the chromatin fibre in cell nuclei from the contact frequency data produced by a 'Chromosome conformation capture' experiment. The only input required is a text file containing a general real matrix of contact frequencies. The related genomic resolution, along with a few geometric parameters and the parameters for tuning the estimation algorithm must be set in advance in a special section of the source code. The whole fibre is divided in independent segments, whose structures are estimated and modelled as single elements of a lower-resolution fibre that is treated recursively in the same way, until it cannot be divided anymore into independent segments. The full-resolution chain is then reconstructed by another recursive procedure.
Criticality of human breath detection with a portable device II: data analysis Germanese D., Righi M., D'Acunto M., Magrini M., Paradisi P., Guidi M. Human breath is largely composed of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitric oxide, and numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1, 2]. Changes in the concentration of the molecules in VOCs could suggest various diseases or at least changes in the metabolism. Indeed, breath gases are recognized to be excellent indicators of the presence of diseases and clinical conditions. Such gases have been identified as biomarkers using accurate but expensive benchtop instrumentations such as gas chromatography (GC) or electronic nose (e-nose) . As a consequence, in recent years, it has been stimulated the necessity to develop a portable device for breath analysis, easy to use, and feasible for patients living far from medical structures or physicians. In the framework of SEMEOTICONS (SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Idividual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring) European Project, we developed a low cost, portable, easy-to- use device for the analysis of breath composition: the Wize Sniffer (WS). The WS captures breath samples, the chemical selective sensors sense the sample and accordingly form a sort of odor-print of healthy people or patients with known and specific diseases, in order to evaluate the well-being state of a human subject [3, 4]. It should be noted that does not exist a general definition of "well-being state", rather some indices for well-being that can be correlated to cardio-metabolic risk, which is representing the leading cause of worldwide mortality [3, 5]. The first prototype of such device is based on commercial, semiconductor-based gas sensors. This type of gas sensors is very robust and easy to integrate. Nevertheless, they are non- selective at all. This leads to several issues for data analysis. In this report we focus our attention on the different strategies for data analysis, evaluating also their performances and outcomes.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2016 Project(s): SEMEOTICONS
Criticality of human breath detection with a portable device III: integration with other devices for health care and self-monitoring Righi M., Germanese D., Magrini M., D'Acunto M., Paradisi P., Guidi M. Human breath is largely composed of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitric oxide, and numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1, 2]. Changes in the concentration of the molecules in VOCs could suggest various diseases or at least changes in the metabolism. Indeed, breath gases are recognized to be excellent indicators of the presence of diseases and clinical conditions. Such gases have been identified as biomarkers using accurate but expensive benchtop instrumentations such as gas chromatography (GC) or electronic nose (e-nose) . As a consequence, in recent years, it has been stimulated the necessity to develop a portable device for breath analysis, easy to use, and feasible for patients living far from medical structures or physicians. In the framework of SEMEOTICONS (SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Idividual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring) European Project, we developed a low cost, portable, easy-to- use device for the analysis of breath composition: the Wize Sniffer (WS). The WS captures breath samples, the chemical selective sensors sense the sample and accordingly form a sort of odor-print of healthy people or patients with known and specific diseases, in order to evaluate the well-being state of a human subject [3, 4]. It should be noted that does not exist a general definition of "well-being state", rather some indices for well-being that can be correlated to cardio-metabolic risk, which is representing the leading cause of worldwide mortality [3, 5]. The breath molecules detected by the Wize Sniffer are the following, all related to those noxious habits for cardio-metabolic risk (alcohol intake, smoking, wrong diet): ï,· Carbon Monoxide (CO): CO is present in cigarette smoke (it is the major component, 75,95%). Mean carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled breath is about 3,5 ppm. Increasing levels of exhaled carbon monoxide can be detected in smoking subjects: 13.8 - 29 ppm. ï,· Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen (O2): Exhaled air has a decreased amount of oxygen and an increased amount of CO2. These amounts show how much O2 is retained within the body for use by the cells and how much CO2 is produced as a by-product of cellular metabolism. CO2 is also one of constituents of tobacco smoke (13%). Exhaled O2 amount is about 13.6%-16% while mean CO2 concentration in exhaled breath is about 4% (= 40000ppm). Lower values may be due to respiration disorders. ï,· Ethanol: Exogenous Ethanol comes from alcoholic drink. It is important to note that it is recognized that ethanol breakdown leads to an accumulation of free radicals into the cells, a clear example of oxidative stress. Ethanol may cause arrhythmias and depresses the contractility of cardiac muscle. ï,· Nitrogen (di)Oxide (NOx): it is a vasodilator and it modulates inflammatory response (operating in combination with CO and Hydrogen Sulfide). It is also a good indicator for asthma diseases. ï,· Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): it is a vascular relaxant agent, and has a therapeutic effect in various cardiovascular diseases (myocardial injury, hypertension). In general, H2S could have therapeutic effect against oxidative stress due to its capability to neutralize the action of free radicals. ï,· Ammonia (NH3): Mean baseline levels of ammonia in exhaled gas are about 0.42ppm. Elevated breath ammonia usually could be due to liver disease, such also to kidney disease. Ammonia is also one of the major compounds, together with CO, of tobacco fumes (approximately 22,15%). ï,· Hydrogen (H2): The production of hydrogen is a metabolic consequence of carbohydrate fermentation by anaerobic bacteria. This hydrogen traverses the gut wall, and is transported via the circulation to the lungs, where is execrated in exhaled breath. Not only, a certain amount of exhaled hydrogen is the result of fermentation by oropharingeal bacteria. As a consequence, increased values of breath hydrogen may be due to overweight problems, intestinal diseases, improper life-style. The baseline value is about 9.1ppm. In this report, we describe briefly the hardware/software architecture of the Wize Sniffer, and how it can be integrated in other multisensory platform for health care and self-monitoring.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2016 Project(s): SEMEOTICONS
Criticality of human breath detection with a portable device I: nanotechniques for improving sensing materials Germanese D., Righi M., D'Acunto M., Chiellini F., Guidi M., Magrini M., Paradisi P., Puppi D. Human breath is largely composed of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitric oxide, and numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1, 2]. Changes in the concentration of the molecules in VOCs could suggest various diseases or at least changes in the metabolism. Indeed, breath gases are recognized to be excellent indicators of the presence of diseases and clinical conditions. Such gases have been identified as biomarkers using accurate but expensive benchtop instrumentations such as gas chromatography (GC) or electronic nose (e-nose) . As a consequence, in recent years, it has been stimulated the necessity to develop a portable device for breath analysis, easy to use, and feasible for patients living far from medical structures or physicians. In the framework of SEMEOTICONS (SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Idividual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring) European Project, we developed a low cost, portable, easy-to- use device for the analysis of breath composition: the Wize Sniffer (WS). The first prototype of such device is based on commercial, semiconductor-based gas sensors. This type of sensors is very robust and easy to be integrated. Nevertheless, they are not selective, thus impeding the discrimination of each type of molecule they are able to detect. In this report we describe a method to improve the sensitivity of semiconductor-based gas sensors. In particular, we focus our attention on the development of a hybrid, ad-hoc sensor, based on Polyaniline sol- gel nano-film, to detect Nitric Oxide. Why Nitric Oxide? NOx (Nitrogen (di)Oxide) is a VOC that plays an important role as an indicator of metabolic since it is related to endothelial function . In addition, it is a vasodilator and it modulates inflammatory response (operating in combination with CO and Hydrogen Sulfide). It is also a good indicator for asthma diseases. Detection of NO presents some challenging problems, because low cost sensors are not available. As a consequence, the development of a sensor for NO to be used in a portable device for breath analysis and taking advantage by nano-scale sensing materials imposed us to work harmonizing existing commercial sensors with innovative sensing materials.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2016 Project(s): SEMEOTICONS
Towards the wize sniffer 1.1: a functional gas sensor for breath analysis Germanese D., Righi M., D'Acunto M., Magrini M., Paradisi P., Guidi M. In this report, we describe the manufacturing of a device for breath analysis. Breath analysis offers a relatively inexpensive, rapid, and non-invasive method for detecting a variety of life habits and possible diseases. Our activity was focused on the design and functionality of the Wize Sniffer (WS), a new portable device for breath analysis limited to an effective number of substances. Within the European SEMEOTICONS (SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Idividual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring) Project by the WS, we intend a hardware/software tool for both the analysis of volatile organic compounds of breath and a platform for data mining and data integration. The WS should be able to provide useful information about the "breathprint", i.e., the analog of fingerprint for the state of health of an individual, to be used in the Virtual Individual Map. In this first period of activity, the WS has been designed in two main configurations. One configuration to work with commercial sensors (that is going to be operative) and the other one configuration to work with customized sensors made using electrospun nanofibers as sensing material. This last configuration is still work in progress. The efforts for the design of the WS involved also statistical data processing.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2016 Project(s): SEMEOTICONS
Noninvasive analysis of low-contrast images on ancient textiles: the case of the Shroud of Arquat Di Lazzaro P., Guarneri M., Murra D., Spizzichino V., Danielis A., Piraccini V., Missori M. We present the results of the first in-depth measurements of the linen cloth of the shroud of Arquata, a precious copy of the Shroud of Turin, which dates back to 1653. The measurements aimed at finding the nature of the faint and low-contrast body impressions on the linen cloth, which are not produced by drawings or paintings as in the other copies of the Shroud of Turin. In general, the optical analysis and the imaging of low-contrast stains on ancient textiles is a complex task, due to the irregular surface and the influence of spectrum, position and uniformity of the illuminating source on colour accuracy and rendition. A correct evaluation requires a multidisciplinary approach. We used noninvasive technolo- gies, including imaging topological radar, laser induced fluorescence, absolute diffused reflectance and absorption spectra, which were previously used to study frescoes, paintings, antique papers, but were never exploited on ancient textiles. The combined results of our measurements and data elaboration allowed identifying the origins of the body impressions, of the stains simulating blood and of the other marks embedded on the linen cloth. Our results can be used to plan the proper long-term conservation of the linen cloth and of marks on it.Source: Journal of cultural heritage 17 (2016): 14–19. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2015.07.008 DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2015.07.008 Metrics:
MobiWallet - Pilot evaluation and validation (Interim version) Martelli F., Moroni D., Pardini F., Pieri G., Renda E., Tampucci M., Biasu G., Ferrini V., Davidson S., Merle L. This first evaluation deliverable includes initial data gatherings from each of the pilots deployed. In order to provide relevance to the data obtained from the pilots, the MobiWallet objectives and goals have been refined and specific metrics used to evaluate each pilot have been gathered prior to the execution of the evaluation. These metrics include both technical aspects of the solution as well as user satisfaction and adoption metrics to properly assess the impact of the pilots.Source: Project report, MobiWallet, Deliverable D5.1.1, 2016 Project(s): MobiWallet
Studio di fattibilità sull'impiego di un accelerometro per lo studio del movimento mandibolare Chimenti M., Magrini M., Foglio Bonda P. L., Guerra P. M. The automatic detection of the movement of a point of the mandible can be a useful tool for the diagnosis of Temporo-Mandibular Disorders. Two detection techniques are presently used, based respectively on the measurement of a magnetic field and on the processing of image sequences. In the frame of an agreement between the Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione of the National Research Council of Italy and the Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale of the University of Eastern Piedmont "Amedeo Avogadro" regarding the development of innovative approach we studied a detection technique based on the measurements provided by an accelerometer. The paper reports the results obtained using a general purpose device, available at IEI, to detect accelerations in cyclic mechanical movements, similar to the mandibular ones.
A protocol for eliciting dream associations oriented to the recognition of episodic dream sources Barcaro U., Delogu A., Righi M., Virgillito A., Carboncini M. C. The use of associations with dream reports, although being diffused and greatly useful in psychotherapy, has so far played a limited role in dream research not directly finalized to therapy. On the other hand, it is difficult to investigate a basic property of dreaming, that of establishing connections, without searching for information beyond the dream report: indeed, the simplest and likely most effective way of obtaining this information consists in asking the dreamer for associations. Well-defined and rigorous methods are however necessary for research approaches which aim to achieve a better understanding of how the dreaming mind operates by processing and combining the dreamer's memory sources: we propose an experimental protocol aiming to give a contribution in this direction. This protocol consists in asking the dreamer to complete a form which has been implemented so as to make it easier to recognize the sources of single dreams and to describe the link patterns among the sources; this form has been oriented to the identification of episodic sources, definite in space and time. To be more effective, the method takes advantage of the presence of a researcher while the dreamer is completing the form: the terms of the interaction between dreamer and researcher are subjected to marked restrictions and rigorously defined. The protocol was applied to a homogeneous group of participants; the observed link patterns presented interesting phenomena, whose occurrence was characterized by high statistical significance.Source: Dreaming (N.Y.N.Y.) 26 (2016): 79–93. doi:10.1037/drm0000019 DOI: 10.1037/drm0000019 Metrics: