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2013 Article Unknown

Underwater scene understanding by optical and acoustic data integration
Moroni D., Pascali M. A., Reggiannini M., Salvetti O.
A new method is proposed to integrate 3D optical and acoustic images relative to the same underwater environment. The combination of optical and acoustic sensors in terms of uniform reference system, geo-referencing and time allows: (i) integration cascade (operational level), (ii) safety data acquisition in various domains (distance from ground, turbid water, vegetation, etc.), (iii) replanning of missions in progress. Furthermore, data fusion can be faced according to different approaches: (a) stratification of referenced data layers, (b) correlation of quantities of different nature, (c) comparison of extracted features: 2D geometries (segments, elementary curves) and 3D (planes, simple surfaces), repetitive patterns, (d) integration of semantic information, (e) template matching for recognizing known structures, (f) creation and refinement of probability maps as a measure of optical (geometry, texture) and acoustic (elevation or reflectivity maps) properties. A set of geometrical and textural feature extraction algorithms is applied to the multi-sensor images and the output results are compared. We aim thus at emphasizing the geometric features correspondences (e.g., lines or different kind of curves), instead of descriptor-based individual feature matching.Source: Proceedings of meetings on acoustics 17 (2013): 1–10. doi:10.1121/1.4792225
DOI: 10.1121/1.4792225

See at: asadl.org | DOI Resolver | CNR People


2013 Part of book or chapter of book Unknown

Un sistema informativo al supporto dell'esplorazione subacquea e la localizzazione di nuovi siti archeologici = An informative system to support underwater exploration and the localization of new archaeological sites
Martinelli M., Righi M., Salvetti O., Tampucci M.
In the frame of the THESAURUS project 2011-2013, financed by Regione Toscana (Italy) (framework of the FAS program 2007-2013, CIPE Deliberation, Italian government, 166/2007) an informative system has been developed in order to manage information retrieved during underwater campaigns and off-line elaborations as well as the historical-archival data: the database contains data regarding shipwrecks and carried materials, finds (such as amphorae, coins, etc.) and other contents (oil, wine, etc.), general goods and related sources. Due to the heterogeneity of the managed data, the developed system exploits, as database, an hybrid infrastructure which is composed of a relational unit, an XML unit and a semantic unit. In an automated way, using data mining algorithms, this system is queried in order to obtain information related to a probability map finalized to localize new archaeological sites. Informative system is accessible by different field research groups. A dissemination Web site is also freely accessible in order to retrieve general information stored into the system.Source: Le tecnologie del CNR per il mare / Marine Technologies, edited by Marco Faimail, pp. 147–147. Roma: CNR, 2013

See at: CNR People | www.edizioni.cnr.it


2013 Article Unknown

Spectroradiometric Field Surveys in Remote Sensing Practice: A Workflow Proposal, from Planning to Analysis
Villa P., Pompilio L., Boschetti M., Pepe M.
Spectroradiometric field surveys, especially when addressed at heterogeneous targets and within a complex environmental context, require careful organization and structuring. This work focuses on a proposal of an operational workflow that holds together different aspects of in situ spectral data acquisition, from planning to data analysis, and is ancillary to environmental analysis based on remote sensing. The main objective is the enhancement of the information coming from acquired spectra, which is accomplished through a set of established guidelines for: campaign planning, measurement collection, and data management. The feasibility and advantages of such approach are demonstrated through a real case scenario, covering two spectroradiometric campaigns aimed at geolithology studies and performed in September 2010 and 2011 in the Dolomites (Northern Italy), where complex environmental and variable atmospheric conditions, as well as, large target variability and spectral heterogeneity occur. The workflow here adopted allowed us to face all the challenges in order to usefully accomplish our campaigns. Issues commonly arising in spectroradiometric field activities are easily foreseen, tackled and mitigated, if necessary, while preserving a high degree of flexibility and generalization for exploiting the workflow over heterogeneous areas and application fields.Source: Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE 1 (2013): 37–51. doi:10.1109/MGRS.2013.2261257
DOI: 10.1109/MGRS.2013.2261257

See at: DOI Resolver | ieeexplore.ieee.org | CNR People


2013 Report Unknown

Report D3.3: Metodi per il riconoscimento e l'annotazione automatica di immagini e mappe
Reggiannini M., Pascali M. A., Moroni D., Tampucci M., Salvetti O., Colombo C., Fanfani M., Bellavia F., Pazzaglia F.
This report contains a description of the software design and development activity in the framework of the Thesaurus project experimental tests. The marine environment represents a challenging context for IT experts, both for what is concerning the discovery of unknown sites and for the recovery and preservation operations. The hostile environmental conditions, unfit to human intervention, favored the increasing demand for artificial intelligence integration in the AUVs, the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in charge of survey operations. The primary purpose of our work consists in treating optical and acoustic signals in order to extract useful information about the surveyed site. We basically seek for meaningful features in the data in order to perform robust object recognition, also in case of unfavorable environmental conditions (in presence of noise, partial occlusions, etc...). The report is organized as follows: the project experimental conditions are described in section 2; in section 3 the techniques employed for a preliminary signal processing are described, paying specific attention to the difference between optical and acoustic data; the procedures performing automatic recognition and classification are described in the following 4,5 and 6 sections; finally the implemented data fusion model is described in section 7. The report contains also some of the results obtained by processing simulation data as well as the data captured during the project experimental tests.

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2013 Report Unknown

Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation
Salerno E., Platania P.
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about beta = -4 to -2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequency components, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (beta < -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of beta > -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.

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2013 Report Unknown

Planck 2013 results. II. The low frequency instrument data processing
Salerno E., Platania P.
We describe the data processing pipeline employed by the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize the full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry (TM) packets through to the production of cleaned calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the -20 dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane.

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2013 Report Unknown

Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
Salerno E., Platania P.
The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large scale anomalies in the CMB temperature distribution detected earlier by WMAP are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussian statistics of the CMB anisotropies. There is some tension between Planck and WMAP results; this is evident in the power spectrum and results for some of the cosmology parameters. In general, Planck results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Because the analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet as mature as the analysis of temperature data, polarization results are not released. We do, however, illustrate the robust detection of the E-mode polarization signal around CMB hot- and cold-spots.

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2013 Report Unknown

ITACA - Metodi di digital watermarking per la protezione del copyright di immagini di documenti o opere d'arte diffuse in rete
Salerno, E.
This document integrates deliverable R6.1, ITACA project (POR FSE Calabria 2007-2013): A report on pros and cons of different classes of invisible watermarking techniques, in view of the project scope. We report some basic features on invisible watermarking systems for copyright protection, and give a first assessment of the robustness of two existing algorithms.

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2013 Article Unknown

A remote sensing approach to monitor the conservation status of lacustrine Phragmites australis beds
Villa P., Laini A., Bresciani M., Bolpagni R.
Phragmites australis populations in native areas have been gradually declining since the mid-20th century. We developed a logical approach based on remote sensing to monitor the conservation status of P. australis beds in response to environmental gradients and orient future management actions in Lake Garda (northern Italy). During the 2010 growing season we collected data on: (i) the structural and functional status of seven P. australis beds and (ii) land cover in a 50-m buffer around each bed, and we tested four different vegetation indices (VIs) derived from a multi-temporal and multisensor dataset. Double hierarchical clustering based on the VI statistics and environmental variables (morphological, functional and land-use) showed a good consistency between the outputs of the vigor-function analysis and the environmental classification of the P. australis beds considered. Overall, the bed's area was the most influential factor in the data clustering procedures, followed by the descriptors derived from the enhanced vegetation index. Our results confirmed the importance of temporal characteristics of remote sensing data to assess the conservation status of common reed beds and proved the sensitivity of VIs and derived descriptors to local environmental conditions within a homogeneous littoral area. This study supports the utility of remote sensing for monitoring riparian vegetation and analyzing the spatial and temporal response of P. australis populations to human pressure and management actions.Source: Wetlands ecology and management (Dordr., Online) 21 (2013): 399–416. doi:10.1007/s11273-013-9311-9
DOI: 10.1007/s11273-013-9311-9

See at: DOI Resolver | link.springer.com | CNR People


2013 Part of book or chapter of book Unknown

Data harmonisation in the context of the European spatial data infrastructure: the HUMBOLDT project framework and scenarios
Villa P., Molina R., Gomarasca M. A.
Harmonised geoinformation is a basic need for fulfilling the task of creating a Spatial data Infrastructure reliable and efficient, in which different data sources and different services for discovery, portrayal and retrieval of geodata is a crucial asset. At the European level, the road to an ESDI follows the guidelines contained in the ISPIRE Directive of the EC. The HUMBOLDT project, started in October 2006 and supported by the European Community has the aim of implementing a Framework for harmonisation of data and services in geoinformation domain, under the INSPIRE Directive and in the context of GMES Initiative. The two-pronged ap-proach of HUMBOLDT comprises a technical side of framework development and an application side of scenario testing and validation. As the outcomes of implemented harmonisational framework grows mature, the application side of the project grows more and more prominent. Among the HUM-BOLDT application Scenarios designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the Framework there is the one covering Protected Areas themes and use cases. Protected Areas Scenario aims to transform geoinformation, managed by park authorities, into a seamless flow that combines multiple informa-tion sources from different governance levels (European, national , regional) , and exploits this newly combined information for the purposes of planning, management and tourism promotion. Alongside, another Application scenario for HUMBOLDT project is described: the Ocean Scenario, which is essentially a centrally running geoportal that allows users to view oil spill information in 3 regions over European Seas, either in report form, or just the harmonized data sources upon request, making use of the HUMBOLDT framework components and providing an overall portrayal interface.Source: Earth Observation of Global Changes (EOGC), edited by Jukka M. Krisp, Liqiu Meng, Roland Pail, Uwe Stilla, pp. 179–191. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32714-8_12

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2013 Conference object Unknown

Anthropogenic carbon stocks analysis in sparsely urbanized areas using remote sensing: a case study
Villa P., Scalenghe R., Malucelli F.
Anthropogenic carbon stocks in urbanized areas is a topic of growing importance at both local and regional scale nowadays, but its assessment is subjects to difficulties due to lack of data and spatial heterogeneity of the target. Remote sensing of urban areas has demonstrated its usefulness in assessing phenomena such as soil sealing and surface imperviousness, which are considered to be effective indicators of urbanization. This work presents a preliminary study of mid resolution satellite data capabilities in providing information about anthropogenic carbon stocks over the area of Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. This has been done through a dual approach consisting of: (1) a direct way of deriving a proxy for carbon stocks assessment via imperviousness surfaces mapping and (2) an indirect way of characterizing urbanization patterns by means of land cover classification. Results show interesting correlation pattern between reference anthropogenic carbon-organic carbon ratio values and both imperviousness map (R2 up to 0.63) and urban features cover map (R2 up to 0.75), with more evident matching in correspondence of sparsely urbanized areas.Source: JURSE 2013 - Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2013, pp. 119–122, Sao Paulo, April 21st-23rd, 2013
DOI: 10.1109/JURSE#.2013.6550680

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2013 Article Unknown

Envisat radar altimetry for coastal and inland waters: case-study of the Concordia ship to understand non-water targets using a tomographic technique
Gómez-enri J., Scozzari A., Soldovieri F., Vignudelli S.
Satellite altimetry systems use a nadir-looking radar to sense the water surface, in order to estimate water heights. Non-water targets (e.g. land, ships) are normally treated as contaminants of the pure radar signal reflected by the water surface. Despite the native low resolution of conventional altimetric platforms, there's still the possibility to extract information about eventual land or artificial scatterers inside the antenna footprint, giving the opportunity to better understand how to detect and eventually remove the associated electromagnetic artifacts. In this paper, we use a tomographic technique to retrieve useful information about the location and geometry of such particular targets. We show results from a case-study based on the Costa Concordia cruise ship, which smashed its hull on 13th of January 2012 against the coast of Giglio Island, a tiny piece of land in the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy) of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The ship is a strong artificial reflector located off-nadir with respect to the closest Envisat track (orbit 274) to the island. A signature in the Envisat waveforms due to the presence of the Concordia ship is revealed by a change-detection analysis applied to the tomographic reconstruction of the scene observed by the radar. The geometric characteristics of the ship and of the apparent electromagnetic target described in this paper are well compatible with the Concordia ship in its final position. The tomographic technique is therefore a promising tool to make a mapping of targets in coastal and inland waters, and to enhance the possibilities to mitigate such effects when dealing with water height measurements in the presence of such targets.Source: International Water Technology Journal (Print) 3 (2013): 60–69.

See at: iwtj.info | CNR People


2013 Article Unknown

Automatic lip contour extraction using both pixel-based and parametric models
Wu W., Kuruoglu E. E., Wang S., Li S., Li J.
Lip segmentation, a sub-step of facial analysis, becomes more and more important in the fields of pattern recognition and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a novel algorithm for lip contour extraction that combines the merits of the pixel-based model and the parametric model is presented. Lip corner detection is the first step of this algorithm, utilizing a three-curve lip model to describe lip contour. The improved "Jumping Snake" algorithm is used to extract feature points for lip model implementation, which makes the novel algorithm more accurate and flexible. It is also made more robust with the introduction of geometric constraints. Experiments show that this approach with geometric constraints provides satisfactory results. It can also serve as an initial attempt for further applications.Source: Chinese journal of electronics 22 (2013): 76–82.

See at: CNR People | www.ejournal.org.cn


2013 Article Unknown

Coherent ranging with Envisat radar altimeter: A new perspective in analyzing altimeter data using Doppler processing
Abileah R., Gomez E. J., Vignudelli S., Scozzari A.
ESA's Envisat mission carried a RA-2 radar altimeter since its launch in 2002 to sense sea state and especiallymeasure sea surface height (SSH). The onboard processing combined multiple echoes incoherently to reduce Speckle noise and benefit from data compression. In fact, according to past literature the amplitudes were generally expected to be independent. Nevertheless, samples of complex data time series of individual echoes (IE) were down-linked and archived since 2004 for research studies. In this note we demonstrate that there is sufficient inter-pulse coherence for Doppler processing and we suggest that the archived data can be re-processed into improved SSH. This is of particular interest in challenging domains (e.g., coastal zone) where coherent processing can mitigate errors from ocean surface backscatter inhomogeneity and nearby land backscatter. A new method called zero-Doppler to process IEs is thus proposed and discussedSource: Remote sensing of environment 139 (2013): 271–276. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.005
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.005

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2013 Article Unknown

A novel algorithm for image denoising based on unscented Kalman filtering
Wang R., Li S., Kuruoglu E. E.
This paper presents a noise removal algorithm based on unscented Kalman filtering in order to improve image quality. We first analysed the characteristics of the background noise, and then discussed the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). After that, one-dimensional unscented Kalman filtering, and two-dimensional non-symmetric half plane (NSHP) support image model based on two-dimensional unscented Kalman filtering are introduced. Experimental results show that as an adaptive method, the algorithm reduces the noise while retaining the image details, and two-dimensional NSHP model performs better than one-dimensional UKF algorithm. Therefore, UKF together with its two-dimensional NSHP implementation have efficacy for noise removal of images.Source: International journal of information and communication technology (Print) 5 (2013): 343–353. doi:10.1504/IJICT.2013.054944
DOI: 10.1504/IJICT.2013.054944

See at: DOI Resolver | CNR People | www.inderscience.com


2013 Article Unknown

Time-varying ARMA stable process estimation using sequential Monte Carlo
Huang R., Zheng H., Kuruoglu E. E.
Various time series data in applications ranging from telecommunications to financial analysis and from geophysical signals to biological signals exhibit non-stationary and non-Gaussian characteristics. ?-Stable distributions have been popular models for data with impulsive and nonsymmetric characteristics. In this work, we present timevarying autoregressive moving-average ?-stable processes as a potential model for a wide range of data, and we propose a method for tracking the time-varying parameters of the processwith ?-stable distribution. The technique is based on sequential Monte Carlo, which has assumed a wide popularity in various applications where the data or the system is non-stationary and non-Gaussian.Source: Signal, image and video processing (Print) 7 (2013): 951–958. doi:10.1007/s11760-011-0285-x
DOI: 10.1007/s11760-011-0285-x

See at: DOI Resolver | link.springer.com | CNR People


2013 Article Unknown

Effective monitoring of landfills: flux measurements and thermography enhance efficiency and reduce environmental impact
Battaglini R., Raco B., Scozzari A.
This work presents a methodology for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system in terms of biogas release to the atmosphere. Despite the various positions towards the impact of methane on global warming, there is a general agreement about the fact that methane from landfill represents about 23% of the total anthropogenic CH4 released to the atmosphere. Despite the importance of this topic, no internationally accepted protocol exists to quantify the leakage of biogas from the landfill cover. To achieve this goal, this paper presents a field method based on accumulation chamber flux measurements. In addition, the results obtained from a nine-year-long monitoring activity on an Italian municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill are presented. The connection between such flux measurements of biogas release and thermal anomalies detected by infrared radiometry is also discussed. The main overall benefit of the presented approach is a significant increase in the recovered energy from the landfill site by means of an optimal collection of biogas, which implies a reduction of the total anthropogenic methane originated from the disposal of waste.Source: Journal of geophysics and engineering (Print) 10 (2013): 064002–0640015. doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064002
DOI: 10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064002

See at: DOI Resolver | iopscience.iop.org | CNR People


2013 Article Open Access OPEN

Alle radici di una definizione del conoscere
Beltrame R.
Critical review of a past paper on a visual perception approach in the framework of the Italian Operational School approach to human mental activity.Source: Methodologia (Milano) WP 274 (2013): 1–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40196-1_7
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40196-1_7
Project(s): QUANTICOL via OpenAIRE, MLCS via OpenAIRE

See at: arXiv.org e-Print Archive Open Access | Edinburgh Research Explorer Open Access | Edinburgh Research Explorer Open Access | Archivio istituzionale della ricerca - Università di Trieste Open Access | Edinburgh Research Explorer Open Access | Edinburgh Research Explorer Open Access | Edinburgh Research Explorer Open Access | Unknown Repository Restricted | DOI Resolver | CNR People | www.methodologia.it


2013 Article Unknown

Conoscere, conoscenze, nozioni
Beltrame R.
Notion is considered as repetitive knowledge, and as ability of making its mental constitutive activity when it is related to knowing. This second aspect continues a previous paper which appeared in the WP 274 of this journal.Source: Methodologia (Milano) WP 275 (2013): 2–8.

See at: CNR People | www.methodologia.it


2013 Article Unknown

Su alcune differenze individuali nella percezione visiva studiate attraverso il movimento dei bulbi oculari
Beltrame R.
A past unpublished paper on the differences in the eye movement during the a same visual task between three different subjects.Source: Methodologia (Milano) WP 269 (2013): 1–13.

See at: CNR People | www.methodologia.it