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2016 Article Unknown

A proactive system for maritime environment monitoring
Moroni D., Pieri G., Tampucci M., Salvetti O.
The ability to remotely detect and monitor oil spills is becoming increasingly important due to the high demand of oil-based products. Indeed, shipping routes are becoming very crowded and the likelihood of oil slick occurrence is increasing. In this frame, a fully integrated remote sensing system can be a valuable monitoring tool. We propose an integrated and interoperable system able to monitor ship traffic and marine operators, using sensing capabilities from a variety of electronic sensors, along with geo-positioning tools, and through a communication infrastructure. Our system is capable of transferring heterogeneous data, freely and seamlessly, between different elements of the information system (and their users) in a consistent and usable form. The system also integrates a collection of decision support services providing proactive functionalities. Such services demonstrate the potentiality of the system in facilitating dynamic links among different data, models and actors, as indicated by the performed field tests.Source: Marine pollution bulletin. 102 (2016): 316–322. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.045
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.045
Project(s): ARGOMARINE via OpenAIRE

See at: DOI Resolver | CNR People | www.sciencedirect.com


2016 Article Unknown

Variance analysis of unbiased least lp-norm estimator in non-Gaussian noise
Chen Y., So H. C., Kuruoglu E. E.
Modeling time and space series in various areas of science and engineering require the values of parameters of interest to be estimated from the observed data. It is desirable to analyze the performance of estimators in an elegant manner without the need for extensive simulations and/or experiments. Among various performance measures, variance is the most basic one for unbiased estimators. In this paper, we focus on the estimator based on the â,,"p-norm minimization in the presence of zero-mean symmetric non-Gaussian noise. Four representative noise models, namely, α-stable, generalized Gaussian, Student's t and Gaussian mixture processes, are investigated, and the corresponding variance expressions are derived for linear and nonlinear parameter estimation problems at pZ1. The optimal choice of p for different noise environments is studied, where the global optimality and sensitivity analyses are also provided. The developed formulas are verified by computer simulations and are compared with the Cramér-Rao lower bound.Source: Signal processing (Print) 122 (2016): 190–203. doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2015.12.003
DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2015.12.003

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2016 Article Unknown

Rüzgar Hizi Öngörüsü: ÇeÅ?me Yarimadasina BakiÅ? (Wind Speed Prediction: case of Cesme Peninsula)
Karakus O., Altinkaya M. A., Kuruoglu E. E.
In this work we descrive our studies in modelling and predicting wind speed in the Cesme Peninsula of Izmir, the wind map of which is now available. In particular we propose a polynomial autoregressive model and compare its performance with state of the art methods.Source: Rüzgar Hizi Öngörüsü: ÇeÅ?me Yarimadasina BakiÅ? (Wind Speed Prediction: case of Cesme Peninsula) 2 (2016): 22–26.

See at: view.publitas.com | CNR People


2016 Article Unknown

Measurement of liquid film distribution in near-horizontal pipes with an array of wire probes
Andreussi P., Pitton E., Ciandri P., Picciaia D., Vignali A., Margarone M., Scozzari A.
A test section consisting of a circumferential array of conductance probes has been developed to measure the thickness distribution around the pipe wall of a liquid layer flowing in near horizontal pipes. When the film thickness is known, the array can be employed to measure the local film flow rate by injecting a high conductivity tracer into the liquid flowing at pipe wall.The test section consists of a short pipe made of a non-conducting material installed in a flow rig designed to operate at an appreciable pressure (40 bar). The flow loop is made of metallic pipes connected to the electrical earth. The conductance probes are made of three parallel, rigid wires spaced along the flow direction and are used to measure the height or the electrical conductivity of the liquid layer. The three-electrode geometry is aimed at minimizing current losses toward earth. The simultaneous operation of all the probes of the array, without multiplexing, allows a substantial reduction of current dispersion and a good circumferential resolution of film thickness or conductivity measurements. The probe geometry may generate an appreciable disturbance to the gas-liquid interface. This aspect of the proposed method has been studied with an experimental and numerical investigation relative to free falling liquid layers.Source: Flow measurement and instrumentation 47 (2016): 71–82. doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.12.007
DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.12.007

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2016 Part of book or chapter of book Unknown

Smart cameras for ITS in urban environment
Magrini M., Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O.
Fully automatic video and image analysis from traffic monitoring cameras is a fast-emerging field based on computer vision techniques with a growing impact on intelligent transport systems (ITS). This chapter first envisages applications of smart cameras and visual sensor network (VSN) to urban scenarios, highlighting specific challenges and peculiarities. Embedded vision nodes are introduced and a brief survey of existing hardware solutions is provided, and the implementation of general computer vision algorithms on smart cameras and VSN is then addressed. The chapter identifies four different scopes that can be targeted thanks to video-surveillance based systems, namely safety and security, law enforcement, billing and traffic monitoring and management. The chapter gives a brief overview of each of them. It also presents the design and development of a sensor node prototype based on VSN concepts.Source: Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications, edited by Asier Perallos, Unai Hernandez-Jayo, Enrique Onieva, Ignacio Julio García-Zuazola, pp. 167–188, 2016
DOI: 10.1002/9781118894774.ch9

See at: DOI Resolver | onlinelibrary.wiley.com | CNR People


2016 Book Unknown

Threats to the Quality of Groundwater Resources: Prevention and Control
Scozzari A., Dotsika E.
This book focuses on scientific and technological aspects of groundwater-resources assessment and surveillance. It describes relevant risks and investigates selected techniques for the monitoring and mitigation of the individuated threats to groundwater quality. The authors discuss the concepts of groundwater-resources protection and offer examples of both geogenic and anthropogenic degradation of groundwater quality, such as heavy metals from mining activities and natural water-rock interactions, as well as risk of contamination due to geological CO2 storage practices etc. The volume also covers non-invasive monitoring techniques and briefly addresses innovative sensor technologies for the online assessment of water quality. Furthermore, the role played by geochemical techniques, the potential of environmental isotopes and the support provided by physical modelling are highlighted. The chapters guide the reader through various viewpoints, according to the diverse disciplines involved, without aiming to be exhaustive, but instead picking representative topics for their relevance in the context of groundwater protection and control. This book will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, policy-makers and stakeholders at various levels.DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-48596-5

See at: DOI Resolver | link.springer.com | CNR People


2016 Article Unknown

Noninvasive analysis of low-contrast images on ancient textiles: the case of the Shroud of Arquat
Di Lazzaro P., Guarneri M., Murra D., Spizzichino V., Danielis A., Piraccini V., Missori M.
We present the results of the first in-depth measurements of the linen cloth of the shroud of Arquata, a precious copy of the Shroud of Turin, which dates back to 1653. The measurements aimed at finding the nature of the faint and low-contrast body impressions on the linen cloth, which are not produced by drawings or paintings as in the other copies of the Shroud of Turin. In general, the optical analysis and the imaging of low-contrast stains on ancient textiles is a complex task, due to the irregular surface and the influence of spectrum, position and uniformity of the illuminating source on colour accuracy and rendition. A correct evaluation requires a multidisciplinary approach. We used noninvasive technolo- gies, including imaging topological radar, laser induced fluorescence, absolute diffused reflectance and absorption spectra, which were previously used to study frescoes, paintings, antique papers, but were never exploited on ancient textiles. The combined results of our measurements and data elaboration allowed identifying the origins of the body impressions, of the stains simulating blood and of the other marks embedded on the linen cloth. Our results can be used to plan the proper long-term conservation of the linen cloth and of marks on it.Source: Journal of cultural heritage 17 (2016): 14–19. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2015.07.008
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2015.07.008

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2016 Report Unknown

MobiWallet - Pilot evaluation and validation (Interim version)
Martelli F., Moroni D., Pardini F., Pieri G., Renda E., Tampucci M., Biasu G., Ferrini V., Davidson S., Merle L.
This first evaluation deliverable includes initial data gatherings from each of the pilots deployed. In order to provide relevance to the data obtained from the pilots, the MobiWallet objectives and goals have been refined and specific metrics used to evaluate each pilot have been gathered prior to the execution of the evaluation. These metrics include both technical aspects of the solution as well as user satisfaction and adoption metrics to properly assess the impact of the pilots.Source: Deliverable D5.1.1, 2016
Project(s): MobiWallet

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2016 Article Open Access OPEN

Wize Mirror - a smart, multisensory cardio-metabolic risk monitoring system
Andreu Y., Chiarugi F., Colantonio S., Giannakakis G., Giorgi D., Henriquez P., Kazantzaki E., Manousos D., Kostas M., Matuszewski B. J., Pascali M. A., Pediaditis M., Raccichini G., Tsiknakis M.
In the recent years personal health monitoring systems have been gaining popularity, both as a result of the pull from the general population, keen to improve well-being and early detection of possibly serious health conditions and the push from the industry eager to translate the current significant progress in computer vision and machine learning into commercial products. One of such systems is the Wize Mirror, built as a result of the FP7 funded SEMEOTICONS (SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Individuals CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring) project. The project aims to translate the semeiotic code of the human face into computational descriptors and measures, automatically extracted from videos, multispectral images, and 3D scans of the face. The multisensory platform, being developed as the result of that project, in the form of a smart mirror, looks for signs related to cardio-metabolic risks. The goal is to enable users to self-monitor their well-being status over time and improve their life-style via tailored user guidance. This paper is focused on the description of the part of that system, utilising computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform 3D morphological analysis of the face and recognition of psycho-somatic status both linked with cardio-metabolic risks. The paper describes the concepts, methods and the developed implementations as well as reports on the results obtained on both real and synthetic datasets.Source: Computer vision and image understanding (Print) (2016). doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2016.03.018
DOI: 10.1016/j.cviu.2016.03.018
Project(s): SEMEOTICONS via OpenAIRE

See at: Central Lancashire Online Knowledge Open Access | BASE (Open Access Aggregator) Open Access | DOI Resolver | CNR People | www.sciencedirect.com


2016 Report Unknown

Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions
Naruse M., Kim S., Takahashi T., Aono M., Akahane K., D'Acunto M., Hori H., Thylén L., Katori M., Ohtsu M.
Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distance when the light localization is strong. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal transfer characteristics.

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2016 Other Unknown

Corso di Elementi di Acustica e metodologie di sintesi del suono digitale
Leonello Tarbella
Elements of Computer Music Technology are given in plain format for students of music who have not a precise background in mathematics, acoustics and computer science. However the very basic ideas concerning the topic are given to allow the students to tackle their music compositional activity with the proper awareness in the terminology and on practical tools available on personal computers.

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2016 Other Unknown

Il contributo del CSCE e dell'IEI/CNR di Pisa nell'ambito della cardio-stimolazione (a 50 anni dalla realizzazione del primo pacemaker auto-sincronizzato in Italia)
Bertini G.
La scrittura di questa nota è dovuta ad alcuni motivi concomitanti. Il primo, preminente, si riferisce ad un episodio che risale a 50 anni fa, quello dello sviluppo del primo pacemaker auto-sincronizzante avvenuto esattamente nei mesi febbraio - giugno 1966 presso il CSCE del CNR di Pisa. Nella nota si descrivono alcuni particolari singolari della progettazione e della realizzazione dei primi esemplari (non noti finora) nonché delle versioni successive e del passaggio all'industria per la produzione sistematica del dispositivo (Appendice 1). Un secondo motivo, a testimonianza della buona valutazione delle competenze nella cardio stimolazione a Pisa, è la recente scelta di un centro di cardiologia dell'Ospedale di Cisanello, per la sperimentazione di un tipo di pacemaker di ridottissime dimensioni tali da rendere possibile l'istallazione all'interno del cuore per alcune particolari patologie (Appendice 2). II terzo motivo è la nomina del nuovo presidente del CNR e delle dichiarazione di intenti per le direzioni ipotizzate di indirizzo del nostro Ente. In tale occasione (che si verifica anche in altri casi) si risolleva il (ricorrente) dibattito sul tipo di politica della ricerca cioè: in che proporzione deve essere quella di base rispetto a quella applicata, chi deve farla e come (-enti di ricerca appositi - università - industria, consorzi misti, ecc.) e si potrebbero ricordare molte situazioni che fanno pendere le percentuali di uno dei termini sopra citati rispetto agli altri (Appendice 3). Per come nacque l'attività in campo biomedico nel CSCE e in particolare come si realizzò il nostro pacemaker sembra paradigmatico e collegato al dibattito su citato. Nella premessa ci sembra utile ricordare l'attività precedente e le competenze dei gruppi di ricerca che favorirono questa utile invenzione, nonché un cenno a quella successiva, in specie sviluppata nell'ambito del Progetto Finalizzato Tecnologie Biomediche del CNR. Nella parte finale si cita anche il tentativo fatto nei primi anni '80, di progettare un pacemaker con tecnologia digitale e le difficoltà incontrate per far realizzare la versione integrata.

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2016 Article Unknown

Near infrared image processing to quantitate and visualize oxygen saturation during vascular occlusion
Jalil B., Salvetti O., Poti L., Hartwig V., Marinelli M., L'Abbate A.
The assessment of microcirculation spatial heterogeneity on the hand skin is the main objective of this work. Near-infrared spectroscopy based 2D imaging is a non-invasive technique for the assessment of tissue oxygenation. The haemoglobin oxygen saturation images were acquired by a dedicated camera (Kent Imaging) during baseline, ischaemia (brachial artery cuff occlusion) and reperfusion. Acquired images underwent a preliminary restoration process aimed at removing degradations occurring during signal capturing. Then, wavelet transform based multiscale analysis was applied to identify edges by detecting local maxima and minima across successive scales. Segmentation of test areas during different conditions was obtained by thresholding-based region growing approach. The method identifies the differences in microcirculatory control of blood flow in different regions of the hand skin. The obtained results demonstrate the potential use of NIRS images for the clinical evaluation of skin disease and microcirculatory dysfunction.Source: Computer methods and programs in biomedicine (Print) 126 (2016): 35–45. doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2015.12.001
DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2015.12.001

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2016 Article Unknown

Rate-distortion function for alpha-stable sources
Kuruoglu E. E., Wang J.
In this paper, we develop a numerical approximation based on the Blahut Arimoto algorithm to the rate distortion function of sources with alpha-stable distribution both for the symmetric and the skewed cases. The calculated rate-distortion function provides bounds for lossy source coding/data compression and the achievable rates for a given distortion.Source: AEÜ. International journal of electronics and communications (Print) 70 (2016): 974–978. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2016.04.011
DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2016.04.011

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2016 Conference object Unknown

Complexity measures based on intermittent events in brain EEG data
Paradisi P., Righi M., Magrini M., Carbonicini M. C., Virgillito A., Salvetti O.
In this work we discuss the application of the complexity approach to the study of physiological signals. In particular, a theoretical framework based on the ubiquitous emergence of fractal intermittency in complex signals is introduced. This approach is based on the ability of complex systems' cooperative micro-dynamics of triggering metastable, macroscopic, self-organized states. The metastability is strictly connected with the emergence of a intermittent point process displaying anomalous non-Poisson statistics and driving the fast transition events between successive metastable states. As a consequence, the estimation of features related to intermittent events can be used to characterize the ability of the complex system to trigger self-organized structures. We introduce an algorithm for the processing of complex signals that is based on the fractal intermittency paradigm, thus focusing on the detection and scaling analysis of intermittent events in human ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG). We finally discuss the application of this approach to real EEG recordings and introduce the preliminary findings.Source: BELBI2016 - Belgrade Bioinformatics Conference 2016, pp. 88–92, Belgrado, Serbia, 20-24 June 2016

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2016 Conference object Unknown

3D objects exploration: guidelines for future research
Biasotti S., Falcidieno B., Giorgi D., Spagnuolo M.
Search engines provide the interface to interact with 3D object repositories, which are rapidly growing in both number and size. This position paper presents the current state of the art on 3D dataset navigation and 3D model retrieval. We discuss a number of challenges we consider as the main points to be tackled for developing effective 3D object exploration systems.Source: Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval, pp. 9–12, Lisbona, Portugal, 8 May 2016
DOI: 10.2312/3dor.20161081

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2016 Conference object Unknown

A model-free approach for imaging tumor hypoxia from DCE-MRI data
Venianaki M., Kontopodis E., Nikiforaki K., De Bree E., Salvetti O., Marias K.
Non-invasive imaging biomarkers that abeb angiogenic response and tumor microvascular environment at an early stage of therapy could provide useful insights into therapy planning. Tibue hypoxia is related to the insufficient supply of oxygen and is abociated with tumor vasculature and perfusion. Thus, knowledge of the hypoxic areas could be of great importance. There is no golden standard for imaging tumor hypoxia yet, however Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) is among the most promising non-invasive clinically relevant imaging modalities. In this work, DCE-MRI data from neck sarcoma are analyzed through a pattern recognition technique which results in the separation of the tumor area into well-perfused, hypoxic and necrotic regions.Source: CGI'16 - 33rd Computer Graphics International, pp. 105–108, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28 June - 01 July-2016
DOI: 10.1145/2949035.2949062

See at: dl.acm.org | DOI Resolver | CNR People


2016 Conference object Unknown

Bayesian estimation of polynomial moving average models with unknown degree of nonlinearity
Karakus O., Kuruoglu E. E., Altinkaya M.
Various real world phenomena such as optical communication channels, power amplifiers and movement of sea vessels exhibit nonlinear characteristics. The nonlinearity degree of such systems is assumed to be known as a general intention. In this paper, we contribute to the literature with a Bayesian estimation method based on reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) for polynomial moving average (PMA) models. Our use of RJMCMC is novel and unique in the way of estimating both model memory and the nonlin- earity degree. This offers greater flexibility to characterize the models which reflect different nonlinear characters of the measured data. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the potentials of RJMCMC in the identification for PMA models due to its potential of exploring nonlinear spaces of different degrees by sampling.Source: EUSIPCO 2016 - European Signal Processing Conference, pp. 1543–1547, Budapest, Ungaria, 29 August - 02 September 2016

See at: openlibrary.eurasip.org | CNR People


2016 Conference object Unknown

Improving hypoxia map estimation by using model-free classification techniques in DCE-MRI images
Venianaki M., Kontopodis E., Nikiforaki K., De Bree E., Maris T., Karantanas A., Salvetti O., Marias K.
The vascular microenvironment of tumors is a key determinant of the tumor pathophysiology. Hypoxia, i.e. lack of sufficient oxygen supply, might affect significantly the treatment efficacy of solid tumors making it an important imaging biomarker. The ability to characterize oxygen perfusion of the tumor can provide prognostic information about the tumor progression and risk of metastases. In this work, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI), a non-invasive method, has been used for the detection of tumor hypoxic areas on neck sarcoma data. Data analysis was performed using a pattern recognition (PR) technique able to automatically identify potential tumor hypoxic regions along with a well-established pharmacokinetic (PK) model for computing perfusion parameters. The paper presents a novel method for the initialization of the PR technique through realistic assumptions in order to overcome instability issues found in random initialization. To this end, the PR technique was initialized using two novel approaches based on the wash-in part of the dynamic acquisition and the ktrans map derived from the PK analysis. The results, from these different implementations show high correlation between them and consistently lead to the separation of the tumor area into well-perfused, hypoxic and necrotic regions.Source: IST 2016 - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques, pp. 183–188, Chania, greece, 4-6 October 2016

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2016 Article Unknown

Stable graphical models
Misra N., Kuruoglu E. E.
Stable random variables are motivated by the central limit theorem for densities with (potentially) unbounded variance and can be thought of as natural generalizations of the Gaussian distribution to skewed and heavy-tailed phenomenon. In this paper, we introduce alpha-stable graphical (alpha-SG) models, a class of multivariate stable densities that can also be represented as Bayesian networks whose edges encode linear dependencies between random variables. One major hurdle to the extensive use of stable distributions is the lack of a closed-form analytical expression for their densities. This makes penalized maximumlikelihood based learning computationally demanding. We establish theoretically that the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) can asymptotically be reduced to the computationally more tractable minimum dispersion criterion (MDC) and develop StabLe, a structure learning algorithm based on MDC. We use simulated datasets for ve benchmark network topologies to empirically demonstrate how StabLe improves upon ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We also apply StabLe to microarray gene expression data for lymphoblastoid cells from 727 individuals belonging to eight global population groups. We establish that StabLe improves test set performance relative to OLS via ten-fold cross-validation. Finally, we develop SGEX, a method for quantifying differential expression of genes between different population groups.Source: Journal of machine learning research 17 (2016): 1–36.

See at: jmlr.org | CNR People