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2011 Conference object Restricted

Fuzzy ontologies and fuzzy integrals
Bobillo F., Straccia U.
Fuzzy ontologies extend classical ontologies to allow the representation of imprecise and vague knowledge. Although a relatively important amount of work has been carried out in the last years and they have been successfully used in several applications, several notions from fuzzy logic, such as fuzzy integrals, have not been considered yet in fuzzy ontologies. In this work, we show how to support fuzzy integrals in fuzzy ontologies. As a theoretical formalism, we provide the syntax and semantics of a fuzzy Description Logic with fuzzy integrals. We also provide a reasoning algorithm for a family of fuzzy integrals and show how to encode them into the language Fuzzy OWL 2.Source: 11th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, ISDA-11, pp. 1311–1316, Cordoba, Spain, 22-24 November 2011
DOI: 10.1109/ISDA.2011.6121841
DOI: 10.1109/isda.2011.6121841

See at: Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted


2012 Article Restricted

Editorial - ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage
Scopigno R.
Source: ACM journal on computing and cultural heritage (Print) 5 (2012): 5–5. doi:10.1145/2307723.2307724
DOI: 10.1145/2307723.2307724

See at: dl.acm.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2012 Other Open Access OPEN

Software di gestione di sistemi bibliotecari "LIBERO v. 6.2.1"
Giannini S.
Il corso, rivolto agli operatori/bibliotecari dell'Università Pontificia Salesiana di Roma e agli operatori/bibliotecari dell'Area della Ricerca CNR di Pisa, ha fornito un'introduzione generale alla nuova versione del sistema di automazione bibliotecaria LIBERO (6.2.1), rinnovata e completamente Web-based. In particolare sono stati introdotti i moduli del sistema, i parametri e la loro gestione. Il corso ha poi approfondito il modulo Cataloguing, i parametri e le funzioni del modulo, spiegando le icone ed il loro significato, illustrando le diverse opzioni di ricerca (di base, avanzata e booleana), le diverse modalità di catalogazione (MARC e Non-MARC, utilizzo delle interfacce di sistema, uso di un template, copia di un record, inserimento manuale, fusione di records), procedure di Import/Export.

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA


2012 Other Restricted

Breve presentazione del database di supporto al sito WEB dell'ISTI
Beltrame R., Ponchio F., Raviolo C.
The ISTI website uses a database to store information presented on its pages. We sketch here the structure of this database.

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2012 Other Restricted

PandAE Guida per l'Ufficio Personale
Diciotti R., Panichi G.
The system PandAE is a web application integrated with the detection time found in areas or in institutions. Allows the office staff of the Institute to obtain data on absences and presences of employees in a timely and accurate to perform their management functions.

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


1992 Conference object Unknown

Some issues on object-oriented re-engineering
Signore O., Loffredo M.
Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper, after a brief discussion of the re-engineering issues, we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and the related problems, related to the difficulty of moving from a process-based to an object oriented perspective. Finally, we describe a general framework for the implementation of an object-oriented re-engineering tool.Source: ERCIM Workshop on Methods and Tools for Software Reuse, pp. 243–265, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29-30/10/1992

See at: CNR ExploRA


1993 Conference object Unknown

Object-oriented re-engineering: a comprehensive approach
Signore O., Loffredo M.
Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper, after a brief discussion of the re-engineering issues, we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and the related problems, related to the difficulty of moving from a process-based to an object oriented perspective. Finally, we describe a general framework for the implementation of an object-oriented re-engineering tool.Source: 15th International Conference on Software Engineering, Baltimora, Maryland, 17-21/5/1993

See at: CNR ExploRA


1993 Conference object Open Access OPEN

A repository based tool for re-engineering towards an object oriented environment
Signore O., Loffredo M.
Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and the problems found in moving from a process-based to an object oriented perspective. Finally, we describe the architecture of TROOP, a tool that implements the object oriented re-engineering, combining into a single repository information describing both the conventional and the object-oriented target environmentSource: ERCIM 93 - Database Research Group Workshop 4, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 3-5/5/1993

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access


1996 Article Unknown

Un browser grafico sul sistema di classificazione ICONCLASS
Signore O., Bartoli R., Fresta G., Loffredo M.
La ricchezza delle relazioni esistenti tra i vari tipi di informazioni e la varietà degli interessi culturali degli utenti potenziali delle applicazioni nel settore dei beni culturali rendono la realizzazione di applicazioni ipermediali in questo settore una sfida di estremo interesse. L'enfasi sulle "autostrade dell'informazione" accresce l'impazienza e le aspettative degli studiosi. Tuttavia, l'entusiasmo per queste nuove tecnologie porta spesso a trascurare l'importanza di approcci più tradizionali e maturi, spesso scartati a priori perchè ritenuti "superati". In questo lavoro descriviamo il modo in cui sono stati utilizzati strumenti "vecchi", come le schede di catalogo, le liste di autorità e i thesauri, per realizzare lo strato cognitivo di un ipermedia in un progetto il cui obiettivo è lo sviluppo di una interfaccia uniforme verso le banche dati del Catalogo Nazionale dei Beni Culturali.Source: Bollettino d'informazioni - Centro di elaborazione automatica di dati e documenti storico-artistici 6 (1996): 19–28.

See at: CNR ExploRA


1999 Article Restricted

Parallelising the Mean Value Analysis algorithm
Gennaro C., King P. J. B.
The Mean Value Analysis (MVA) algorithm is one of the most popular for evaluating the performance of separable (or product form) queueing networks. Although its complexity is modest when jobs are indistinguishable, the introduction of different customer classes rapidly increases its computational cost. The problems of parallelising the algorithm while retaining its conceptual simplicity are examined. In particular, a parallel implementation of MVA on a distributed memory machine is developed using the MPI library for communication.Source: Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation 16 (1999): 16–22. doi:10.1177/003754979907200304
DOI: 10.1177/003754979907200304

See at: SIMULATION Restricted | SIMULATION Restricted | SIMULATION Restricted | SIMULATION Restricted | SIMULATION Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | SIMULATION Restricted | sim.sagepub.com Restricted


2007 Article Open Access OPEN

Series of Workshops on Digital Library Foundations
Castelli D., Fox E.
This document presents the results of the workshop on "Foundations of Digital Libraries" held in connection with the ACM-IEEE JCDL 2007 Conference in June in Vancouver. The papers presented during the workshop aimed to contribute to laying the foundations for digital libraries as a whole, as well as continuing the work on the definition of a Reference Model for Digital Libraries that was launched by the EU DELOS Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries.Source: D-Lib magazine 13 (2007): 9–10. doi:10.1045/september2007-castelli
DOI: 10.1045/september2007-castelli

See at: D-Lib Magazine Open Access | D-Lib Magazine Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | D-Lib Magazine Open Access


2005 Conference object Restricted

Digital Libraries over the Grid: Heaven or Hell?.
Castelli D., Ioannidis Y.
The last decade has seen unprecedented advances in network and distributedsystem technologies, which have opened up the way for the construction of globalscale systems based on completely new conceptions of computation and sharing of resources. The dream of integrating unlimited levels of processing power, unlimited amounts of information, and an unlimited variety of services, and o.ering the entire package in a reliable and seamless fashion to widely distributed users is quickly becoming reality. As Digital Libraries move towards more usercentric, pro-active, collaborative functionality and application diversity, they should be among the first to take advantage of such environments. The long-term vision of the field for creating Dynamic Universal Knowledge Environments calls for intensive computation and processing of very large amounts of information, hence, the needs for the appropriate distributed architecture are pressing.Source: ECDL 2005 - 9th European Conference on Digital Libraries (Vienna, Austria, 18-23 September 2005), pp. 477–478, Vienna, 18-23 September 2005

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2013 Report Restricted

ENGAGED - Roadmap templates to support the cluster members in the assembly of raw roadmaps
Braun A., Chessa S., Fullaondo Zabala A.
The deliverable D4.1 - Roadmap templates to support the cluster members in the assembly of raw roadmaps is the first deliverable of WP4. The purpose of this document is to describe the procedure and provide supporting documents that will be used in creating the ENGAGED roadmaps as final results of the work package. The document first gives an overview of the rationale in deciding on the structure of the ENGAGED roadmap, using best practices by third party sources. In the following the roadmap template is described in detail. The next part summarises the Action Plans of the different Action Groups within EIP AHA. The input of those to the ENGAGED roadmap is discussed in detail and potential topics for the ENGAGED workshops are suggested. The next part of the document outlines templates for both workshop agenda and minutes that are specifically tailored to simplify the collection of the inputs relevant to the future roadmaps. Help is provided to the minute takers on filling out the templates, by giving detailed examples on all relevant parts and sections. The document concludes with a résumé and two annexes providing two blank templates for structural roadmap and workshop summary, respectively.Source: Project report, ENGAGED, Deliverable D4.1, 2013
Project(s): ENGAGED

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


1998 Other Open Access OPEN

Sviluppo di una procedura assistita da calcolatore per la valutazione dello strabismo: studio preliminare
Azzarelli L., Chimenti M., Bozzi E., Bozzi R., Fantini E.
An abstract is not available.

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access


1988 Conference object Unknown

Esercitazioni e dimostrazioni
Bozzi R., Fantini E.
Source: Corso teorico pratico di informatica in radiologia diagnostica, S. Miniato, Pisa, 1988

See at: CNR ExploRA


2014 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Going beyond research communication and management current practices
Castelli D.
This key note presentation discusses the impact of data-driven science in the research "landscape" and describes the functionality of the OpenAIRE infrastructure for research.Source: CRIS 2014 - 12th International Conference of Current Research Information Systems, Roma, Italy, 13-15 May 2014
Project(s): OPENAIREPLUS via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.cris2014.org Open Access


2014 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Visual media for Cultural Heritage: an opportunity for assessing, finding limitations and enhancing technologies
Scopigno R.
Digital technologies are now mature for producing high quality digital replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artifacts. The research results produced in the last two decades have shown an impressive evolution and consolidation of the technologies for acquiring high-quality digital 3D models, encompassing both geometry and color (or, better, surface reflectance properties); technologies for the interactive visualisation of complex models and the integration of different media have been also an important subject of research. In this talk, I will present the more recent progresses, focusing on practical solutions which aim at a major impact in real applications. The talk will also try to give a glance into the near future, demonstrating how geometry processing and visualization could become a major instrument in the study and dissemination of our cultural heritage.Source: CESCG 2014 - 18th Central European Seminar on Computer Graphics, pp. 5–5, Smolenice, Slovakia, 25-27 May 2014

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.cescg.org Open Access


2009 Article Restricted

Editing Wikipedia Content by Screen Reader: Easier Interaction with ARIA
Buzzi M., Leporini B.
Purpose. This study aims to improve Wikipedia usability for the blind and promote the application of standards relating to Web accessibility and usability. Method. First, accessibility and usability of Wikipedia home, search result and edit pages are analysed using the JAWS screen reader; next, suggestions for improving interaction are proposed and a new Wikipedia editing interface built. Most of the improvements were obtained using the Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) within the framework of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). Last, a scenario of use compares interaction of blind people with the original and the modified interfaces. Results. Our study highlights that although all contents are accessible via screen reader, usability issues exist due to the user's difficulties when interacting with the interface. The scenario of use shows how building an editing interface with the W3C WAI-ARIA suite eliminates many obstacles that can prevent blind users from actively contributing to Wikipedia. Conclusion. The modified Wikipedia editing page is simpler to use via a screen reader than the original one because ARIA ensures a page overview, rapid navigation, and total control of what is happening in the interface.Source: Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology (Print) 4 (2009): 264–275. doi:10.1080/17483100902903457
DOI: 10.1080/17483100902903457

See at: Disability and Rehabilitation Assistive Technology Restricted | informahealthcare.com Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Disability and Rehabilitation Assistive Technology Restricted | Disability and Rehabilitation Assistive Technology Restricted | Disability and Rehabilitation Assistive Technology Restricted


2014 Conference object Restricted

Oil spills detection through a marine environment monitoring system
Moroni D., Pieri G., Salvetti O., Tampucci M.
The ability to detect and monitor oil spills at sea is becoming more and more important due to the high demand of oil based products and to the increase in maritime traffic density. Remote sensing frameworks have been proved to yield accurate results in the case of major events; nonetheless also medium and micro oil spills are of their own importance, especially in protected areas that deserve special attention. In this paper, we propose a monitoring framework based on the collection of in-situ observations and on their integration with remote sensing in order to fill out existing observational gaps. A risk assessment model is included for providing environmental decision support and for generating alerts in case of potentially dangerous situations. Field operational tests in an area of great environmental interest demonstrate the technical validity of the approach.Source: IBIMET 2014 - Fifth International Symposium Monitoring of Mediterranean Coastal Areas: problems and measurement techniques, pp. 440–448, Livorno, Italy, 17-19 June 2014

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2014 Article Open Access OPEN

Thesaurus: un database per il patrimonio culturale sommerso
La Monica D., Costa S., Pace G., Martinelli M., Salvetti O., Tampucci M., Righi M.
Thesaurus Project aims at promoting the knowledge of the underwater cultural heritage, ancient and modern, through the application of several typologies of tools: underwater autonomous vehicles, which will be able to explore the sea bottom in teams communicating with each other; a database, which will be useful to store and manage all the information referring to archaeological or historical objects, shipwrecks and sites. This paper aims to explain the logic structure of the database indicating the particular needs of the research, the different typologies of items which have to be managed (archaeological and historical objects; ancient, medieval or modern shipwrecks; underwater sites; written or figurative sources, etc.), the relation with other similar databases and projects. The main task of this part of Thesaurus is to plan and organize an IT system, which will allow archaeologists to describe information in detail, in order to make an efficient managing and retrieving data system available.Source: Archeologia e calcolatori 25 (2014): 51–69.

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.progettocaere.rm.cnr.it Open Access


2015 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Experimenting an embedded-sensor network for early warning of natural risks due to fast failures along railways
Fantini A., Magrini M., Martino S., Moroni D., Pieri G., Prestininzi A., Salvetti O.
This paper deals with a project for real-time monitoring of railway tracks to detect events, such as fast failures from natural risks, which may threaten the transit of trains. The paper describes a network of smart sensors for early warning of these endangering events. Three main types of fast-failure events involving railways were identified: sinkhole, rock and debris falls. A case study on a known test site and experimentation with various scenarios were carried out with a view to developing algorithms capable of spotting and localising them. Results demonstrate the good performance of the network in monitoring the investigated events.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 85–91, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted


2015 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Signal processing for underwater archaeology
Moroni D., Pascali M. A., Reggiannini M., Salvetti O.
About three million wrecks lie scattered on the oceans' seafloors. This huge patrimony is actually threatened by criminal enterprises having advanced tools available for localization and rescue operations. ARROWS, a currently ongoing EU FP7 project, is an example of the effective commitment between cultural institutions and the scientific community towards the safeguard of the sunken cultural heritage. ARROWS is devoted to advanced technologies and tools for mapping, diagnosing, cleaning, and securing underwater and coastal archaeological sites. A fleet of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) will be manufactured with the purpose of surveying the seabed and sensing the underwater environment by means of proper payload sensors (digital cameras, side scan and multi-beam sonars). This paper describes a set of underwater scene understanding procedures specifically tailored to the purposes addressed in the ARROWS frame. In particular the data collected by the AUVs during the acquisition campaigns will be processed to detect targets of interest located on the seabed. The main approach adopted in the object detection procedures is to highlight the amount of regularity in the captured data. This can be pursued by exploiting computer vision algorithms that perform i) the recognition of geometrical curves ii) the classification of seafloor areas by means of textural pattern analysis iii) a large scale map generation to return an overall view of the site and iv) a reliable object recognition process performing the integration of the available multi modal information. Moreover the collected raw data together with the analysis output results will be stored to allow for an offline deep analysis of the archaeological findings. This will represent a powerful tool to be used by expert users or by the general public to enjoy the underwater cultural heritage.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 80–84, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015
Project(s): ARROWS via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted


2015 Conference object Open Access OPEN

PRIAR using a graph segmentation method
Righi M., D'Acunto M., Salvetti O.
Recently, we have suggested a simple and general-purpose method able to combine high-resolution analysis with the classification and identification of components of microscopy imaging. The method named PRIAR (Pattern Recognition Image Augumented Resolution) is a tool developed by the authors that gives the possibility to enhance spatial and photometric resolution of low-res images. The implemented algorithm follows the scheme: 1) image classification; 2) blind super-resolution on single frame; 3) pattern-analysis; 4) reconstruction of the discovered pattern. In this paper, we suggest some improvements of the PRIAR algorithm, in particular, the definition of a segmentation method which is based on homomorphism between a processed image and a graph describing the image itself, able to identify object of interest in complex patterns. The case study is the identification of organs inside biological cells acquired with Atomic Force Microscopy Technique.Source: IMTA 2015 - 5th International Workshop on Image Mining. Theory and Applications, pp. 46–51, Berlin, Germany, 11-14 March 2015

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.scitepress.org Restricted


2015 Part of book or chapter of book Open Access OPEN

From EU projects to a family of model checkers. From Kandinsky to KandISTI
Ter Beek M. H., Gnesi S., Mazzanti F.
We describe the development of the KandISTI family of model checkers from its origins nearly two decades ago until its very recent latest addition. Most progress was made, however, during two integrated European projects, AGILE and SENSORIA, in which our FM&&T lab participated under the scientific coordination of Martin Wirsing. Moreover, the very name of the family of model checkers is partly due to Martin Wirsing's passion for art and science.Source: Software, Services, and Systems. Essays Dedicated to Martin Wirsing on the Occasion of His Retirement from the Chair of Programming and Software Engineering, edited by Rocco De Nicola, Rolf Hennicker, pp. 312–328, 2015
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15545-6_20

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | Unknown Repository Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2015 Report Restricted

Improving test coverage measurement for reused software
Miranda B., Bertolino A.
Test coverage adequacy measures provide a widely used stopping criterion. Engineering of modern software-intensive systems emphasizes reuse. In the case that a program including reused code or third-party components uses them in a context that is different from the original one, some of their entities (e.g. branches) might never be exercised, thus producing a code coverage level far from full and not meaningful anymore as a stopping rule for the program at hand. We introduce a new coverage criterion that in each testing context in which a code is reused calculates coverage measures over the set of relevant entities for that context. We provide an approach for identifying relevant entities using dynamic symbolic execution. The introduced coverage adequacy criterion is assessed in an exploratory study against traditional coverage in terms of test suite size reduction factor, cost-effectiveness ratio and rate of fault detection.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2015

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2017 Part of book or chapter of book Restricted

Realizzazione del sistema interattivo 'Loggia digitale'
Siotto E., Palma G., Scopigno R.
The VC Lab has developed, in collaboration with the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, the Interactive Digital System of the Loggia of Cupid and Psyche within the exhibition 'The Loggia of Cupid and Psyche - Raffaello and Giovanni da Udine - Colours of Prosperity: Fruits from the Old and New World' Villa Farnesina, Rome April 20 - July 20 2017. The system allows access to the 'digital Loggia' and permits the visitor to navigate freely through the high-resolution panoramic image of the painted ceiling, to admire it from a closer point of view and to consult the results of historical, botanical and scientific analyses performed on the selected species. The system is available online and with an interactive kiosk in the Farnesina building.Source: La Loggia di Amore e Psiche - Raffaello e Giovanni da Udine - I colori della prosperità: Frutti dal Vecchio e Nuovo Mondo, pp. 74–77, 2017

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted | vcg.isti.cnr.it Restricted


2003 Doctoral thesis Restricted

Criteria to improve web site usability and accessibility when interacting through screen readers: definition, application, and evaluation
Leporini B.
This research is related to the usability and accessibility of Web sites. Guidelines for Web site usability already exist, but they only marginally consider the exigencies of "special users", such as blind people or subjects with high levels of vision deficit. This study specifically aimed at defining, in a more precise way, the usability of Web sites, in order to improve their accessibility for "special users", who are obliged to navigate on the internet through screen readers. First of all, 19 criteria (general principles) and 54 checkpoints defining each criterion (technical solutions) were proposed; then, possible ways of application of such criteria and checkpoints was specified. This represented the starting point to evaluate the usability of Web sites: in this work, the heuristic-based method was proposed and used in order to assign levels of usability to several Web sites of interest. A user testing was performed by 15 voluntary users, chosen among blind and low vision subjects. Two Web site prototypes were specifically designed for this purpose, only differing for the presence/absence of important usability criteria defined in this study. By comparing the time spent by users navigating and performing assigned tasks on the two Web site (with and without criteria), the impact of the application of the proposed criteria on the quality of the navigation was estimated. Finally, an automatic tool, whose implementation is in progress, is briefly presented at the end of this work. This tool is the first step toward a complete and definitive automatic procedure able to evaluate real Web site usability, especially considering blind and low vision people's constraints. Further studies are in progress to reach this final goal.

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Other Open Access OPEN

Le radiazioni
Martinelli M., Bastiani L., Paolicchi F.
Una introduzione alle radiazioni - Materiale per Bright 2019

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA


2019 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Lo Stile di Vita del Frequentatore della Montagna
Martinelli M., Bastiani L., Valoti P., Agazzi G., Carrara B., Parigi G. B., Marina Malannino M., Spinelli A., Calderoli A., Orizio L., Righi M., Pardini F., Benassi A., D'Angelo G., Giardini G., Moroni D., Mrakic Sposta S., Pratali L.
La variazione dei frequentatori della montagna degli ultimi anni sta significativamente cambiando le problematiche del territorio montano: se da un lato aumenta il numero delle presenze temporanee (turisti, lavoratori, etc...), dall'altro diminuisce quello degli abitanti. Il primo, tra le varie, sta elevando il Male Acuto di alta Montagna (MAM) a problema di salute pubblica non trascurabile; il secondo porta ad una minore gestione del territorio generando problemi diretti ed indiretti, tra questi, favorito altresì dal riscaldamento globale, anche la proliferazione delle zecche. Questa ricerca ha esaminato in particolare I fattori di rischio individuale relativo allo stile di vita e al MAM.Source: XXI CONVEGNO NAZIONALE SIMeM, Arabba, 28/09/2019

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Conference object Open Access OPEN

Conoscenza della popolazione sulla radioprotezione e sulla dose radiante delle principali procedure radiologiche
Bastiani L., Salvadori S., Martinelli M., Moroni D., Paolicchi F., Caramella D.
Nel corso degli ultimi decenni stiamo assistendo ad una rapida evoluzione delle tecniche di indagine radiologica, al fine di fornire prestazioni sempre più elevate e performanti. Il frequente e sistematico ricorso alle tecniche di diagnostica per immagini ha fatto sì che queste abbiano assunto il ruolo di strumento indispensabile per definire il corretto percorso terapeutico dei pazienti. Tutte queste metodiche tuttavia, se da un lato aumentano la capacità diagnostica delle procedure, dall'altro possono tendere ad esporre il paziente ad elevate quantità di radiazioni ionizzanti. Spesso il luogo comune associa alla parola "radiazioni" qualcosa di pericoloso. Limitata è però la consapevolezza relativa a quante radiazioni vengono impiegate per le diverse procedure diagnostiche e a quante ciascun individuo è quotidianamente esposto anche a causa del fondo naturale di radiazione.Source: BRIGHT 2019, 27/09/2019

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Other Unknown

Conoscenze Popolazione Radiazioni - Sito del Progetto RadioPoGe
Martinelli M., Bastiani L., Paolicchi F., Salvetti O., Caramella D.
Aggiornamento del Sito web per il progetto "Conoscenze della popolazione sui rischi delle procedure radiologiche" dedicato alla raccolta e alla elaborazione dei dati per la valutazione delle conoscenze della popolazione in merito ai rischi delle procedure radiologiche e alla comprensione delle corrette modalità con cui comunicare tali rischi ai pazienti. Versione 1.3_4 del 2019-12-20

See at: CNR ExploRA | radiazioni.isti.cnr.it


1992 Other Open Access OPEN

Verifying concurrent system by talking to them
Fantechi A., Gnesi S., Ristori G., Carenini M., Marino M., Moreschini P.
In this paper we present a prototype translator from Natural Language expressions into Temporal Logic formulae. The translator is realized using a general development environment for Natural Language processing and it has been interfaced with a verification environment of behavioural properties on concurrent systems specified by process algebras. This too1 can be viewed as an aid to override the many imprecisions that frequently occur in the passage from informal requirements expressed by means of Natural Language expressions to Temporal Logic formulae.

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access


2002 Article Restricted

All-sky astrophysical component separation with fast independent
Maino D., Farusi A., Baccigalupi C., Perrotta F., Banday A. J., Bedini L., Burigana C., De Zotti G., Gorski K. M., Salerno E.
We present a new, fast, algorithm for the separation of astrophysical components superposed in maps of the sky. The algorithm, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) technique, is aimed at recovering both the spatial pattern and the frequency scalings of the emissions from statistically independent astrophysical processes, present along the line-of-sight, from multi-frequency observations, without any a priori assumption on properties of the components to be separated, except that all of them, except possibly one, must have non-Gaussian distributions. The analysis starts from very simple toy-models of the sky emission in order to assess the quality of the reconstruction when inputs are well known and controlled. In particular, we study the dependence of the results of separation conducted on and off the Galactic plane independently, showing that optimal separation is achieved for sky regions where components are smoothly distributed. Then we consider simulated observations of the microwave sky with angular resolution and instrumental noise, supposed to be white and stationary, at the mean nominal levels for the Planck satellite. The angular response function is assumed to be identical at each frequency since this is, up to now, one of the Fast Independent Component Analysis (FASTICA) limitations. We consider several Planck observation channels containing the most important known diffuse signals: the cosmic microwave background (CMB), Galactic synchrotron, dust and free–free emissions. A method for calibrating the reconstructed maps of each component at each frequency has been devised. The spatial patterns of all the components have been recovered on all scales probed by the instrument. In particular, the CMB angular power spectra is recovered at the per cent level up to l_max = 2000. Frequency scalings and normalization have been recovered with better than 1 per cent precision for all the components at frequencies and in sky regions where their signal-to-noise ratio >1.5; the error increases at 10 per cent level for signal-to-noise ratios =1. Runs have been performed on a Pentium III 600-MHz computer; although the computing time slightly depends on the number of channels and components to be recovered, FASTICA typically took about 10 min for all-sky simulations with 3.5-arcmin pixel size. Although the quoted results have been obtained under a number of simplifying assumptions, we conclude that FASTICA is an extremely promising technique for analysing the maps that will be obtained by the forthcoming high-resolution CMB experiments.Source: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Print) 334 (2002): 53–68.

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2002 Article Restricted

An adaptive approach to achieving hardware and software fault tolerance in a distributed computing environment
Bondavalli A., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Xu J.
This paper focuses on the problem of providing tolerance to both hardware and software faults in independent applications running on a distributed computing environment. Several hybrid-fault-tolerant architectures are identified and proposed. Given the highly varying and dynamic characteristics of the operating environment, solutions are developed mainly exploiting the adaptation property. They are based on the adaptive execution of redundant programs so as to minimise hardware resource consumption and to shorten response time, as much as possible, for a required level of fault tolerance. A method is introduced for evaluating the proposed architectures with respect to reliability, resource utilisation and response time. Examples of quantitative evaluations are also given.Source: Journal of systems architecture 47 (2002): 763–781.

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2002 Article Restricted

An automatic method for the recognition and classification of the A-phases of the cyclic alternating pattern
Navona C., Barcaro U., Bonanni E., Di Martino F., Maestri M., Murri L.
Objective: The aim of the research has been to introduce an automatic method, simple from the mathematical and computational points of view, for the recognition and classification of the A-phases of the Cyclic Alternating Pattern. Method: The automatic method was based on the computation of five descriptors, which were derived from the EEG signal and were able to provide a meaningful data reduction. Each of them corresponded to a different frequency band. Results: The computation of these descriptors, followed by the introduction of two suitable thresholds and of simple criteria for logical discrimination, provided results with were in good agreement with those obtained with visual analysis. The method was versatile and could be applied to the study of other important microstructure phenomena by means of very small adaptations. Conclusions: The simplicity of the method lead to a better understanding and a more precise definition of the visual criteria for the recognition and classification of the microstructure phenomena.Source: Clinical neurophysiology 113 (2002): 1826–1831.

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2002 Article Restricted

Bandwidth allocation in a multiservice satellite network based on long-term weather forecast scenarios
Bolla R., Celandroni N., Davoli F., Ferro E., Marchese M.
The paper compares two alternative hierarchical bandwidth allocation and admission control schemes suited for the multiservice Ka-band satellite environment, where the attenuation of the transmitted signals due to bad weather conditions has a heavy impact on the systems performance. The two schemes are compared by using data derived from a real case study. The aim is to demonstrate that a high level control mechanism for the assignment of the satellite bandwidth to earth stations, which takes into consideration the rain attenuation probabilities of a certain geographical area, improves the systems performance, with respect to an assignment mechanism insensitive to the geographical fade probabilities.Source: Computer communications 25 (2002): 1037–1046.

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2002 Article Restricted

Computational complexity analysis of a 3D neural network approach to volume matching
Di Bona S., Niemann H., Salvetti O., Wolf M.
Automatic registration of digital images is an important support in the medical field for physicians and surgeons. In fact, comparison of anatomical scan is a fundamental procedure for disease prediction, lesions quantification or for evaluating the results of a therapy. A new proposed approach implements three-dimensional neural networks to match, and hence to register, volumetric data sets of the brain in order to evaluate the differences between two volumes. The high computational complexity of this approach has been improved by implementing a more efficient method to train the networks.Source: Pattern recognition 12 (2002): 63–69.

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2002 Article Restricted

Degradation identification and model parameter estimation in discontinuity-adaptive visual reconstruction
Tonazzini A., Bedini L.
This paper describes our recent experiences and progress towards an efficient solution of the highly ill-posed and computationally demanding problem of blind and unsupervised visual reconstruction. Our case study is image restoration, i.e. deblurring and denoising. The methodology employed makes reference to edge-preserving regularization. This is formulated both in a fully Bayesian framework, using a MRF image model with explicit, and possibly geometrically constrained, line processes, and in a deterministic framework, where the line process is addressed in an implicit manner, by using a particular MRF model which allows for self-interactions of the line and an adaptive variation of the model parameters. These MRF models have been proven to be efficient in modeling the local regularity properties of most real scenes, as well as the local regularity of object boundaries and intensity discontinuities.In both cases, our approach to this problem attempts to effectively exploit the correlation between intensities and lines, and is based on the assumption that the line process alone, when correctly recovered and located, can retain a good deal of information about both the hyperparameters that best model the whole image and the degradation features. We show that these approaches offer a way to improve both the quality of the reconstructed image, and also the estimates of the degradation and model parameters, and significantly reduce the computational burden of the estimation processes.Source: Advances in imaging and electron physics 120 (2002): 193–284. doi:10.1016/S1076-5670(02)80036-2
DOI: 10.1016/S1076-5670(02)80036-2
DOI: 10.1016/s1076-5670(02)80036-2

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2002 Article Restricted

Diving behaviour differs between incubating and brooding Brunnich's guillemoth's, Uria lomvia
Benvenuti S., Dall'Antonia S., Falk K.
Bird-borne data loggers were used to investigate the foraging strategies of Brünnich's guillemots breeding in a colony in the North Water Polynya: the flight performance and diving activity of incubating birds were compared to those of chick-rearing individuals. No significant differences were recorded between the bird groups in the potential foraging range. Conversely, clear differences were revealed between incubating and chick-rearing birds in diving behaviour. Chick-rearing birds were generally foraging at a significantly greater depth, and spent significantly higher proportions of the time submerged, than brooding individuals. Despite these differences, the estimated average daily energy expenditure of chick-rearing Brünnich's guillemots was only about 6% higher than that during incubation.Source: Polar biology (Print) 25 (2002): 474–478. doi:10.1007/s00300-002-0372-0
DOI: 10.1007/s00300-002-0372-0

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2002 Article Open Access OPEN

Foraging behaviour of thick-billed murres breeding in different sectors of the North Water polynya: an intercolony comparison
Falk K., Benvenuti S ., Dall'Antonia L., Gilchrist G., Kampp K.
The North Water polynya is an area of open water that occurs year round between northwest Greenland and Canada. Oceanographic conditions differ between the western ('latent heat' polynya type) and extreme eastern ('sensible heat' polynya type) sectors of the polynya, and the effects of this variation on prey availability and foraging conditions for high trophic-level predators are unknown. Thick-billed murres Uria lomvia breed on both sides of the polynya, and we conducted inter-colony comparisons of their foraging ecology. We measured time allocation and foraging efforts of chick-rearing adults using electronic data-loggers which recorded dive profiles and flight activity. Murres on the western side of the North Water polynya foraged at relatively shallow depths and rarely (4.4% of dives) explored depths beyond 70 m. In contrast, murres on the eastern side searched for prey at >70 m in 23% of all dives, and spent a greater share of each trip actively diving. The Canadian birds made foraging trips of longer duration than the Greenland murres, but they also spent more time 'resting' at the sea surface. Rest time at sea was apparently the only time buffer available for increasing foraging effort. The Greenland birds had little room for increasing foraging effort, while the Canadian birds had spare capacity for additional work. Maximum potential foraging ranges were equal at the 2 colonies (75% within 50 km), and the murres had access to approximately equally-sized areas of open sea. We estimate that the density of foraging birds at sea within the 50 km of colonies would be 6.5 times higher on the Canadian side due to the large breeding colony at Coburg Island. Intra-specific competition for food should increase with increasing colony size because the predators may reduce food resources within their foraging range. Nevertheless, the Canadian birds worked less than Greenland murres, indicating a relatively good food availability in the western part of the polynya. However, the higher foraging effort by Greenland murres paid off in a higher chick growth rate, so it remains unclear why the Canadian birds did not also make use of their spare capacity to increase foraging effort. Since high-level zooplankton/fish stock interactions are seldom part of oceanographic studies in the Arctic, seabird foraging behaviour and breeding ecology serve as two of the few indicators of possible local variation within the polynya ecosystem.Source: Marine ecology. Progress series (Halstenbek) 231 (2002): 293–302. doi:10.3354/meps231293
DOI: 10.3354/meps231293

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2002 Article Open Access OPEN

Foraging strategies of the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony: evidence for a maximum foraging range
Daunt F., Benvenuti S., Harris M. P., Dall'Antonia L., Elston D. A., Wanless S.
Black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla on the Isle of May, southeast Scotland, feed predominantly on the lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus, an abundant, pelagic fish that is currently the subject of the largest fishery in the North Sea. The population of black-legged kittiwakes on the Isle of May is declining, and the fishery has been implicated. In order to assess this concern, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the factors that affect black-legged kittiwake foraging behaviour. During 1999, we carried out a detailed study of the foraging strategies of black-legged kittiwakes using purpose-built activity loggers that allowed us to distinguish 4 key behaviours: travelling flight, foraging flight, presence on the sea surface and attendance at the nest. We used the data to model 2 key aspects of time allocation at sea: (1) the relationship between the travelling time and trip duration and (2) the ratio of time spent actively foraging to time of inactivity on the sea surface at the foraging grounds. We found that a broken-stick model with a flat asymptote was the best fit for the relationship between travelling time and trip duration. Using published flight speeds for this species, we calculate that breeding black-legged kittiwakes on the Isle of May had a maximum range of 73 ± 9 km from the colony. We speculate that this upper limit is dictated by the distribution of prey rather than any energetic constraint on flight costs: a large sand bank complex, known to have high concentrations of lesser sandeels, lies entirely within this range. There was no consistent pattern in the ratio of the active to inactive components of the foraging trip, suggesting that this species exhibits highly flexible foraging strategies at sea, probably reflecting the patchy and unpredictable distribution and availability of its prey. Our findings suggest that the birds are feeding on sandeels at the same time and in the same area as the operations of the sandeel fishery.Source: Marine ecology. Progress series (Halstenbek) 245 (2002): 239–247. doi:10.3354/meps245239
DOI: 10.3354/meps245239

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2002 Article Open Access OPEN

Greedy algorithms for tracking mobile users in special mobility graphs
Olariu S., Pinotti M. C., Wilson L.
An important issue in wireless networks is the design and analysis of strategies for tracking mobile users. Several strategies have been proposed that aim at balancing the cost of updating the user position and the cost of locating a mobile user. The recently proposed reporting center strategy partitions the cellular network into reporting and non-reporting cells, and associates with each reporting cell a set of non-reporting cells, called its vicinity. The users report their position only when they visit a reporting cell. When a call arrives, the user is searched for only in the vicinity of the last visited reporting center. For a given constant "Z", the reporting center problem asks for a set of reporting cells of minimum cardinality such that each selected cell has a vicinity of size at most "Z" so that the update cost is minimized and the locating cost is bounded by "Z". The problem was shown to be "NP"-hard for arbitrary graphs and "Z>=2". The main contribution of this work is to propose algorithms to optimally solve the reporting center problem for vicinity 2 on interval graphs and for arbitrary vicinity on proper interval graph.Source: Discrete applied mathematics 121 (2002): 215–227. doi:10.1016/S0166-218X(01)00238-4
DOI: 10.1016/S0166-218X(01)00238-4
DOI: 10.1016/s0166-218x(01)00238-4

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2002 Article Restricted

Grid programming: some indications where we are headed
Laforenza D.
Grid computing enables the development of large scientific applications on an unprecedented scale. Grid-aware applications, also called meta-applications or multi-disciplinary applications, make use of coupled computational resources that are not available at a single site. In this light, the Grids let scientists solve larger or new problems by pooling together resources that could not be coupled easily before. It is well known that the programmer's productivity in designing and implementing efficient distributed/parallel applications on high-performance computers is still usually a very time-consuming task. Grid computing makes the situation worse. Consequently, the development of Grid programming environments that would enable programmers to efficiently exploit this technology is an important and hot research issue.After an introduction on the main Grid programming issues, this paper will review the most important approaches/projects conducted in this field worldwide.Source: Parallel computing 28 (2002): 1733–1752. doi:10.1016/S0167-8191(02)00186-2
DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8191(02)00186-2
DOI: 10.1016/s0167-8191(02)00186-2

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2002 Article Restricted

Integrated support based on task models for the design, evaluation, and documentation of interactive safety-critical systems: a case study in the air traffic control domain
Paternò F., Santoro C.
This paper presents an approach to using task models in both the design and the evaluation phases of interactive safety-critical applications. We explain how it is possible to use information contained in task models for supporting the design and development of effective user interfaces. Moreover, we show how task models can also support a systematic inspection-based usability assessment by examining possible deviations that can occur while users interact with the system, an important issue especially when coping with the peculiar requirements of safety-critical applications. Such evaluation provides useful technical documentation in order to help users achieve an in-depth understanding of the system and its design rationale. Lastly, a description of the application of our approach to a real case study in the air traffic control domain will illustrate the main features of the proposed method. In particular, we discuss examples taken from an application for air traffic controllers in an aerodrome supported by graphical user interfaces for data-link communications with pilots.Source: International Journal of Systems Science 33 (2002): 513–527. doi:10.1080/00207720210133688
DOI: 10.1080/00207720210133688

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2002 Article Open Access OPEN

Load balanced and optimal disk allocation strategy for partial match queries on multidimensional files
Das S. K., Pinotti M. C.
A multidimensional file is one whose data are characterized by several attributes, each specified in a given domain. A partial match query on a multidimensional file extracts all data whose attributes match the values of one or more attributes specified in the query. The disk allocation problem of a multidimensional file F on a database system with multiple disks accessible in parallel is the problem of distributing F among the disks such that the data qualifying for each partial match query are distributed as evenly as possible among the disks of the system. We propose an optimal solution to this problem for multidimensional files with pairwise prime domains based on a large and flexible class of maximum distance separable codes, namely, the redundant residue codes. We also introduce a new family of residue codes, called the redundant nonpairwise prime residue codes, to deal with files whose attribute domains are nonpairwise prime.Source: IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems (Print) 13 (2002): 1211–1219. doi:10.1109/TPDS.2002.1158260
DOI: 10.1109/TPDS.2002.1158260
DOI: 10.1109/tpds.2002.1158260

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2002 Article Open Access OPEN

Longitudinal changes of body mass index, spirometry, and diffusion in general population
Bottai M., Pistelli F., Di Pede F. ., Carrozzi L., Baldacci S., Matterelli G., Scognamiglio A., Viegi G.
Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BMI changes, over an eight-year follow-up, on longitudinal changes of VC, FVC, FEV1, and DLCO indices in a general population sample of North Italy.To avoid including weight changes possibly related to physical growth, only the 1426 (46% males) adults (over 24 years) with complete follow-up were selected. Median linear regression models were applied to estimate the medians of changes (computed as follow-up minus baseline values) of VC, FVC, FEV1, and DLCO indices as functions of changes of BMI over follow-up period, separately by gender, after considering several potential confounders and effect modifiers. The extent of lung function loss tended to be higher among those who, at baseline, reported greater BMI values. Males experienced larger losses than females (20 and 16 ml FEV1 median reduction for a BMI unit increase in males and females, respectively). Conversely, longitudinal changes of BMI caused a slight and non-significant increase in DLCO values in both sexes. Over an eight-year follow-up, the detrimental effect of gaining weight might be reversible for many adults as most of those who reduced their BMI values also increased their lung function. Overweight patients with ventilatory impairment should be routinely encouraged to lose weight for improving their lung function.Source: European Respiratory Journal 20 (2002): 665–673. doi:10.1183/09031936.02.01282001
DOI: 10.1183/09031936.02.01282001

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2002 Article Restricted

Mappings for conflict-free access of paths in bidimensional array, circular lists, and complete trees
Bertossi A. A., Pinotti M. C.
Since the divergence between the processor speed and the memory access rate is progressively increasing, an efficient partition of the main memory into multibanks is useful to improve the overall system performance. The effectiveness of the multibank partition can be degraded by memory conflicts, that occur when there are many references to the same memory bank while accessing the same memory pattern. Therefore, mapping schemes are needed to distribute data in such a way that data can be retrieved via regular patterns without conflicts. In this paper, the problem of conflict-free access of arbitrary paths in bidimensional arrays, circular lists and complete trees is considered for the first time and reduced to variants of graph-coloring problems. Balanced and fast mappings are proposed which require an optimal number of colors (i.e., memory banks). The solution for bidimensional arrays is based on a particular Latin Square. The functions that map an array node or a circular list node to a memory bank can be calculated in constant time. As for complete trees, the mapping of a tree node to a memory bank takes time that grows logarithmically with the number of nodes of the tree. The problem solved here has further application in minimizing the number of frequencies assigned to the stations of a wireless network so as to avoid interference.Source: Journal of parallel and distributed computing (Print) 62 (2002): 1314–1333. doi:10.1006/jpdc.2002.1860
DOI: 10.1006/jpdc.2002.1860

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2002 Article Restricted

Model checking fault tolerant systems
Bernardeschi C., Fantechi A., Gnesi S.
This paper proposes a modelling approach suitable for formalizing fault tolerant systems, taking into account different fault scenarios. Verification of the properties of such systems is then performed using model checking. A general framework for the formal specification and verification of fault tolerant systems is defined starting from these principles, and experience with its application to two case studies is then presented.Source: Software testing, verification & reliability 12 (2002): 251–275. doi:10.1002/stvr.258
DOI: 10.1002/stvr.258

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2002 Article Restricted

Nonlinear least Lp-norm filters for nonlinear autoregressive (alfa)-stable processes
Kuruoglu E. E.
The ?-stable distribution family has received great interest recently, due to its ability to successfully model impulsive data. ?-stable distributions have found applications in areas such as radar signal processing, audio restoration, financial time series modeling, and image processing. Various works on linear parametric models with ?-stable innovations have been reported in the literature. However, some recent work has demonstrated that linear models are not in general adequate to capture all characteristics of heavy-tailed data. Moreover, it is known that the optimal minimum dispersion estimator for ?-stable data is not necessarily linear. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest a shift in the interest to nonlinear parametric models for problems involving ?-stable distributions. In particular, we study a simple yet analytic nonlinear random process model namely polynomial autoregressive ?-stable processes. Polynomial autoregression and Volterra filtering have been successful models for some biomedical and seismic signals reflecting their underlying nonlinear generation mechanisms. In this paper, we employ ?-stable processes instead of classical Gaussian distribution as an innovation sequence and arrive at a model capable of describing asymmetric as well as impulsive characteristics. We provide a number of novel adaptive and block type algorithms for the estimation of model parameters of this class of nonlinear processes efficiently. Simulation results on synthetic data demonstrate clearly the superiority of the novel algorithms to classical techniques. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application areas of the techniques developed in the paper, including impulsive noise suppression, nonlinear system identification, target tracking, and nonlinear channel equalization.Source: Digital signal processing (Print) 12 (2002): 119–142. doi:10.1006/dspr.2001.0416
DOI: 10.1006/dspr.2001.0416

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2002 Article Restricted

Optimal tree access by elementary and composite templates in parallel memory systems
Auletta V., Das S. K., De Vivo A., Pinotti M. C., Scarano V.
In this paper, we study efficient strategies for mapping onto parallel memory systems complete trees that are accessed by fixed templates (like complete subtrees, paths, or any combinations their of). These mappings are evaluated with respect to the following criteria: (1) the largest number of data items that can be accessed in parallel without memory conflicts; (2) the number of memory conflicts that can occur when accessing templates of size equal to the number of available memory modules, thereby exploiting the full parallelism of the system; (3) the complexity of the memory addressing scheme, i.e., the cost of retrieving the module where a given data item is mapped. We show that there exist trade-offs between these three criteria and the performance of different mapping strategies depends on the emphasis given on each of these criteria. More specifically, we describe an algorithm for mapping complete binary trees of height H onto M memory modules and prove that it achieves the following performance results: (1) conflict-free access to complete subtrees of size K and paths of size N such that N + K - [log K] /spl les/ M; (2) at most 1 conflict in accessing complete subtrees and paths of size M; (3) O(K/M + c) conflicts when accessing a composite template of K nodes consisting of c disjoint subsets, each subset being a complete subtree, or a path or a set of consecutive nodes in a level of the tree.Source: IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems (Print) 13 (2002): 399–411. doi:10.1109/71.995820
DOI: 10.1109/71.995820
DOI: 10.1109/ipdps.2001.924972

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