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2021 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Enhancing sustainability of the railway infrastructure: Trading energy saving and unavailability through efficient switch heating policies
Chiaradonna S., Masetti G., Di Giandomenico F., Righetti F., Vallati C.
Railway is currently envisioned as the most promising transportation system for both people and freight to reduce atmospheric emission and combat climate change. In this context, ensuring the energy efficiency of the railway systems is paramount in order to sustain their future expandability with minimum carbon footprint. Recent advancements in computing and communication technologies are expected to play a significant role to enable novel integrated control and management strategies in which heterogeneous data is exploited to noticeably increase energy efficiency. In this paper we focus on exploiting the convergence of heterogeneous information to improve energy efficiency of railway systems, in particular on the heating system for the railroad switches, one of the major energy intensive components. To this aim, we define new policies to efficiently manage the heating of these switches exploiting also external information such as weather and forecast data. In order to assess the performance of each strategy, a stochastic model representing the structure and operation of the railroad switch heating system and environmental conditions (both weather profiles and specific failure events) has been developed and exercised in a variety of representative scenarios. The obtained results allow to understand both strengths and limitations of each energy management policy, and serves as a useful support to make the choice of the best technique to employ to save on energy consumption, given the system conditions at hand.Source: Sustainable computing: informatics and systems (Print) 30 (2021). doi:10.1016/j.suscom.2021.100519
DOI: 10.1016/j.suscom.2021.100519

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Sustainable Computing Informatics and Systems Restricted | Sustainable Computing Informatics and Systems Restricted | Sustainable Computing Informatics and Systems Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Sustainable Computing Informatics and Systems Restricted | www.sciencedirect.com Restricted


2021 Journal article Open Access OPEN

On identity-aware replication in stochastic modeling for simulation-based dependability analysis of large interconnected systems
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
This paper focuses on the generation of stochastic models for dependability and performability analysis, through mechanisms for the automatic replication of template models when identity of replicas cannot be anonymous. The major objective of this work is to support the modeler in selecting the most appropriate replication mechanism, given the characteristics of the system under analysis. To this purpose, three most used solutions to identity-aware replication are considered and a formal framework to allow representing them in a consistent way is first defined. Then, a comparison of their behavior is extensively carried out, with focus on efficiency, both from a theoretical perspective and from a quantitative viewpoint. For the latter, a specific implementation of the considered replication mechanisms in the Möbius modeling environment and a case study representative of realistic interconnected infrastructures are developed.Source: Performance evaluation 147 (2021). doi:10.1016/j.peva.2021.102192
DOI: 10.1016/j.peva.2021.102192

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Trading dependability and energy consumption in critical infrastructures: Focus on the rail switch heating system
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
Traditionally, critical infrastructures demand for high dependability, being the services they provide essential to human beings and the society at large. However, more recent attention to cautious usage of energy resources is changing this vision and calls for solutions accounting for appropriate multi-requirements combinations when developing a critical infrastructure. In such a context, analysis supports able to assist the designer in envisioning a satisfactory trade-off among the multi-requirements for the system at hand are highly helpful. In this paper, the focus is on the railway sector and the contribution is a stochastic model-based analysis framework to quantitatively assess trade-offs between dependability indicators and electrical energy consumption incurred by the rail switch heating system.Moving from a preliminary study that concentrated on energy consumption only, the analysis framework has been extended to become a solid support to devise appropriate tuning of the heating policy that guarantees satisfactory trade-offs between dependability and energy consumption. An evaluation campaign in a variety of climate scenarios demonstrates the feasibility and utility of the developed framework.Source: 25th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, pp. 150–159, Perth, Australia, 01/12/2021
DOI: 10.1109/prdc50213.2020.00026

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2020 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

Enhancing sustainability of the railway infrastructure through efficient energy management policies
Chiaradonna S., Masetti G., Di Giandomenico F., Righetti F., Vallati C.
Railway is currently envisioned as the most promising transportation system for both people and freight to reduce atmospheric emission and combat climate change. In this context, ensuring the energy efficiency of the railway systems is paramount in order to sustain their future expandability with minimum carbon footprint. Recent advancements in computing and communication technologies are expected to play a significant role to enable novel integrated control and management strategies in which heterogeneous data is exploited to noticeably increase energy efficiency. In this paper we focus on exploiting the convergence of heterogeneous information to improve energy efficiency of railway systems, in particular on the heating system for the railroad switches, one of the major energy intensive components. To this aim, we define new policies to efficiently manage the heating of these switches exploiting also external information such as weather and forecast data. In order to assess the performance of each strategy, a stochastic model representing the structure and operation of the railroad switch heating system and environmental conditions (both weather profiles and specific failure events) has been developed and exercised in a variety of representative scenarios. The obtained results allow to understand both strengths and limitations of each energy management policy, and serves as a useful support to make the choice of the best technique to employ to save on energy consumption, given the system conditions at hand.Source: 11th International Green and Sustainable Computing Conference, Virtual Conference, 19/10/2020, 22/10/2020

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

On Extending and Comparing Newton-Raphson Variants for Solving Power-Flow Equations
Dutto S., Masetti G., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F.
This paper focuses on power-flow equations solutions, based on the Newton-Raphson method. Two major contributions are offered. First, the definition of novel solution variants, resorting to Wirtinger calculus, is attempted. The obtained developments, although original in their formulation, led to already known variants. Despite the impaired originality of the obtained solution, there are significant lessons learned from such an effort. The second major contribution consists of a deep comparison analysis of existing solution strategies, based on complex and real variables, and the Wirtinger based ones, all properly reformulated to allow direct comparison with each other. The goal is to investigate strengths and weaknesses of the addressed techniques in terms of computational effort and convergence rate, which are the most relevant aspects to consider while choosing the approach to employ to solve power-flow equations for a specific power system under study.Source: IEEE transactions on power systems 34 (2019): 2577–2587. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2019.2897640
DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2019.2897640

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Restricted


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Stochastic modeling and evaluation of large interdependent composed models through Kronecker algebra and exponential sums
Masetti G., Robol L., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F.
The KAES methodology for efficient evaluation of dependability-related properties is proposed. KAES targets systems representable by Stochastic Petri Nets-based models, composed by a large number of submodels where interconnections are managed through synchronization at action level. The core of KAES is a new numerical solution of the underlying CTMC process, based on powerful mathematical techniques, including Kronecker algebra, Tensor Trains and Exponential Sums. Specifically, advancing on existing literature, KAES addresses efficient evaluation of the Mean-Time-To-Absorption in CTMC with absorbing states, exploiting the basic idea to further pursue the symbolic representation of the elements involved in the evaluation process, so to better cope with the problem of state explosion. As a result, computation efficiency is improved, especially when the submodels are loosely interconnected and have small number of states. An instrumental case study is adopted, to show the feasibility of KAES, in particular from memory consumption point of view.Source: The 40th International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency, pp. 47–66, Berlin, 23-28/06/2019
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21571-2_3

See at: arpi.unipi.it Open Access | Archivio della Ricerca - Università di Pisa Open Access | link.springer.com Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | rd.springer.com Restricted


2019 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN

A Refined Framework for Model-Based Assessment of Energy Consumption in the Railway Sector
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G., Basile D.
Awareness and efforts to moderate energy consumption, desirable from both economical and environmental perspectives, are nowadays increasingly pursued. However, when critical sectors are addressed, energy saving should be cautiously tackled, so to not impair stringent dependability properties such contexts typically require. This is the case of the railway transportation system, which is the critical infrastructure this paper focuses on. For this system category, the attitude has been typically to neglect efficient usage of energy sources, motivated by avoiding to put dependability in danger. The new directives, both at national and international level, are going to change this way of thinking. Our study intends to be a useful support to careful energy consumption. In particular, a refined stochastic modeling framework is offered, tailored to the railroad switch heating system, through which analyses can be performed to understand the sophisticated dynamics between the system (both the cyber and physical components) and the surrounding weather conditions.Source: From Software Engineering to Formal Methods and Tools, and Back. Essays Dedicated to Stefania Gnesi on the Occasion of Her 65th Birthday, edited by Maurice H. ter Beek, Alessandro Fantechi, Laura Semini, pp. 481–501, 2019
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-30985-5_28

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2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

An efficient strategy for model composition in the Möbius modeling environment
Masetti G., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Feddersen B., Sanders W. H.
Möbius is well known as a modeling and evaluation environment for performance and dependability indicators. One of Möbius' key features is the modular and compositional approach to model definition and analysis. In particular, the modeler can define submodels using several formalisms and compose them to form the overall model of the system under analysis. The current algorithm for model composition in Möbius revealed performance issues when large systems are considered (such as in the modeling of realistic segments of energy or transportation infrastructures), due to the chosen data flow scheme. In this paper, a new algorithm for the same composition mechanism is proposed to improve efficiency. A case study is also developed to demonstrate the performance enhancements.Source: 14th European Dependable Computing Conference 2018, pp. 116–119, Iasi, Romania, 10-14 September, 2018
DOI: 10.1109/edcc.2018.00029

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2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Supporting CPS modeling through a new method for solving complex non-holomorphic equations
Masetti G., Dutto S., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F.
Modeling cyber-physical systems (CPSs) for assessment or design support purposes is a complex activity. Capturing all relevant physical, structural or behavioral aspects of the system at hand is a crucial task, which often implies representation of peculiar features/constraints through non-linear equations. Values that fulfill the constraints, described with a domain specific language, are obtained solving the equations through a properly developed solution tool. Only for a limited set of CPSs it is possible to find a straightforward strategy to design the software that solves the constraints equations. In the general case, instead, the modeler has to develop an ad-hoc artifact for each different system. This is the case of non-holomorphic but real analytic complex equations, adopted to represent system components with wave behaviors. In this paper, we present a new approach to develop a software for solving such complex equations following a generative programming strategy, based on Wirtinger derivatives within the Newton-Raphson method.Source: 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, MODELSWARD, pp. 680–688, Madeira, Portugal, 22-24 January, 2018
DOI: 10.5220/0006752306800688

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2017 Conference article Open Access OPEN

A stochastic modeling approach for an efficient dependability evaluation of large systems with non-anonymous interconnected components
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
This paper addresses the generation of stochastic models for dependability and performability analysis of complex systems, through automatic replication of template models. The proposed solution is tailored to systems composed by large populations of similar non-anonymous components, interconnected with each other according to a variety of topologies. A new efficient replication technique is presented and its implementation is discussed. The goal is to improve the performance of simulation solvers with respect to standard approaches, when employed in the modeling of the addressed class of systems, in particular for loosely interconnected system components (as typically encountered in the electrical or transportation sectors). Effectiveness of the new technique is demonstrated by comparison with a state of the art alternative solution on a representative case study.Source: Internationa Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, pp. 46–55, Tolosa, Francia, 23-26/10/2017
DOI: 10.1109/issre.2017.17

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | doi.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2017 Conference article Restricted

Model-based simulation in möbius: An efficient approach targeting loosely interconnected components
Masetti G., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F.
This paper addresses the generation of stochastic models for dependability and performability analysis of complex systems, through automatic replication of template models inside the Möbius modeling framework. The proposed solution is tailored to systems composed by large populations of similar non-anonymous components, loosely interconnected with each other (as typically encountered in the electrical or transportation sectors). The approach is based on models that define channels shared among replicas, used to exchange the values of each state variable of a replica with the other replicas that need to use them. The goal is to improve the performance of simulation based solvers with respect to the existing state-sharing approach, when employed in the modeling of the addressed class of systems. Simulation results for the time overheads induced by both channel-sharing and state-sharing approaches for different system scenarios are presented and discussed. They confirm the expected gain in efficiency of the proposed channel-sharing approach in the addressed system context.Source: European Workshop on Performance Engineering, pp. 184–198, Berlino, 7-8/09/2017
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-66583-2_12

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2016 Report Open Access OPEN

Stochastic model-based evaluation of reliable energy-saving rail road switch heating systems
Basile D., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Gnesi S.
Rail road switch heaters are used to avoid the formation of snow and ice on top of rail road switches during the cold season, in order to guarantee their correct functioning. Effective management of the energy consumption of these devices is important to reduce the costs and minimise the environmental impact. While doing so, it is critical to guarantee the reliability of the system. In this work we analyse reliability and energy consumption indicators for a system of (remotely controlled) rail road switch heaters by developing and solving a stochastic model-based approach based on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN) formalism. An on-off policy is considered for heating the switches, with parametric thresholds of activation/deactivation of the heaters and considering different classes of priority. A case study has been developed inspired by a real rail road station, to practically demonstrate the application of the proposed approach to understand the impact of different thresholds and priorities on the indicators under analysis (probability of failure and energy consumption).Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2016

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2016 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Quantification of the effectiveness of medium voltage control policies in smart grids
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Xiao J.
Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasing significantly, pushed by the need to meet sustainable energy goals in many countries. Control is a key enabling technology for the deployment of renewable energy systems in smart grids and to guarantee high-performance and reliable operation. To this purpose, a large variety of control strategies have been proposed or are still under investigation, posing the challenge of understanding the effectiveness of the individual solutions and their ability to face operation in critical scenarios, such as in presence of failures. In this paper we focus on the medium voltage grid control and propose a stochastic modeling framework appropriate to represent a variety of voltage control strategies and to quantify their effectiveness in terms of suitably defined metrics to trade among multiple requirements such as imposed grid stability, reliability and cost. We exercise the developed modeling framework on a benchmark grid to show concrete quantification of medium voltage control solutions in interesting grid scenarios.Source: IEEE 17th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, pp. 284–291, Orlando, FL, USA, 7-9 January 2016
DOI: 10.1109/hase.2016.42
Project(s): SMARTC2NET via OpenAIRE

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2016 Conference article Restricted

A stochastic modelling framework to analyze smart grids control strategies
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
Smart grids provide services at the basis of a number of application sectors, several of which are critical from the perspective of human life, environment or financials. It is therefore paramount to be assisted by technologies able to analyze the smart grid behavior in critical scenarios, e.g. where cyber malfunctions or grid disruptions occur. In this paper, we present a stochastic modelling framework to quantitatively assess representative indicators of the resilience and quality of service of the distribution grid, in presence of accidental faults and malicious attacks. The results from the performed analysis can be exploited to understand the dynamics of failures and to identify potential system vulnerabilities, against which appropriate countermeasures should be developed. The features of the proposed analysis framework are discussed, pointing out the strong non-linearity of the involved physics, the developed solutions to deal with control actions and the definition of indicators under analysis. A case study based on a real-world network is also presented.Source: SEGE 2016 - 4th IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, pp. 123–130, Oshawa, Canada, 21-24 August 2016
DOI: 10.1109/sege.2016.7589512

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2016 Conference article Restricted

Exploring equations ordering influence on variants of the Newton-Raphson method
Masetti G., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F.
Jacobian-free Newton-Raphson methods are general purpose iterative non-linear system solvers. The need to solve non-linear systems is ubiquitous throughout computational physics [1] and Jacobian-free Newton-Raphson methods can offer scalability, super-linear convergence and applicability. In fact, applications span from discretized PDEs [2] to power-flow problems [3]. The focus of this article is on Inexact-Newton-Krylov [2] and Quasi-Inverse-Newton [4] methods. For both of them, we prove analytically that the initial ordering of the equations can have a great impact on the numerical solution, as well as on the number of iterations to reach the solution. We also present numerical results obtained from a simple but representative case study, to quantify the impact of initial equations ordering on a concrete scenario.Source: 2ND International Conference "Numerical Computations: Theory and Algorithms", pp. 090053–090055, Pizzo Calabro, Italy, 19-25 June 2016
DOI: 10.1063/1.4965417

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2016 Journal article Open Access OPEN

A stochastic model-based approach to analyze reliable energy-saving rail road switch heating systems
Basile D., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Gnesi S.
Rail road switch heaters are used to avoid the formation of snow and ice on top of rail road switches during the cold season, in order to guarantee their correct functioning. Effective management of the energy consumption of these devices is important to reduce the costs and minimise the environmental impact. While doing so, it is critical to guarantee the reliability of the system. In this work we analyse reliability and energy consumption indicators for a system of (remotely controlled) rail road switch heaters by developing and solving a stochastic model-based approach based on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN) formalism. An on-off policy is considered for heating the switches, with parametric thresholds of activation/deactivation of the heaters and considering different classes of priority. A case study has been developed inspired by a real rail road station, to practically demonstrate the application of the proposed approach to understand the impact of different thresholds and priorities on the indicators under analysis (probability of failure and energy consumption).Source: Journal of rail transport planning & management (Print) 6 (2016): 163–181. doi:10.1016/j.jrtpm.2016.03.003
DOI: 10.1016/j.jrtpm.2016.03.003

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management Restricted | www.sciencedirect.com Restricted


2016 Conference article Restricted

Analyzing the Impact of Failures in the Electric Power Distribution Grid
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
The electric power system is among the most critical infrastructures, being a support for many of them and for key resource sectors. In fact, the complex, digital world around us requires electric power for fundamental aspects of most business and consumer activities. Therefore, it is paramount to assure the correct power supply. Following the increasing trend in electricity generation from renewable sources, pushed by the need to meet sustainable energy goals in many countries, more sophisticated control strategies are being adopted to regulate the operation of the electric power system. Analyzing their effectiveness and ability to face operation in critical scenarios, such as in presence of failures, is certainly a relevant aspect to investigate. In this paper we focus on the medium voltage grid control and adopt a stochastic modeling framework appropriate to analyze voltage control strategies in presence of selected failure scenarios. The impact of the addressed failures on indicators of voltage stability, representative of the resilience shown by the analyzed system, is assessed in a real-world reference grid. Variability in both generation and loads is covered, to reflect realistic contexts where the addressed system is called to operate.Source: Seventh Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing, pp. 99–108, Calì, Colombia, 19-21 October 2016
DOI: 10.1109/ladc.2016.23

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2016 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Improving voltage control in MV smart grids
Xiao J., Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Pimentel A.
Smart grids aim at evolving the traditional electrical grid system by making increasing use of sophisticated control and communication network technology, to properly deal with the high penetration of controllable assets, such as distributed generators and flexible loads, and their associated challenges. Since electrical grids are critical infrastructures, control strategies regulating their operation need to face both efficiency and cost aspects, as well as resilience related ones in order to assure reliable service. Keeping the focus on the medium voltage control functionality, in this paper we present a study of the event-triggered voltage control algorithm to satisfy voltage control requirements. In particular, the opportunity to introduce soft bounds to improve preserving voltage values in bounds notwithstanding the effect of control delay is explored in a variety of scenarios, including fault presence due to attacks to the communication network. Through a developed stochastic model-based framework, quantitative analyses are performed on a realistic MV testbed grid, to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of the proposed contribution.Source: IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, pp. 382–387, Sydney, Australia, 6-9 November 2016
DOI: 10.1109/smartgridcomm.2016.7778791

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2016 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

Efficient non-anonymous composition operator for modeling complex dependable systems
Chiaradonna S., Di Giandomenico F., Masetti G.
A new model composer is proposed to automatically generate non-anonymous model replicas in the context of performability and dependability evaluation. It is a state-sharing composer that extends the standard anonymous replication composer in order to share the state of a replica among a set of other specific replicas or among the replica and another external model. This new composition operator aims to improve expressiveness and performance with respect to the standard anonymous replicator, namely the one adopted by the Mobius modeling framework.Source: EDCC 2016 - 12nd European Dependable Computing Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 5-9 September 2016

See at: arxiv.org Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Stochastic model-based analysis of energy consumption in a rail road switch heating system
Basile D., Chiaradonna S., Giandomenico F. D., Gnesi S., Mazzanti F.
Rail road switches enable trains to be guided from one track to another, and rail road switches heaters are used to avoid the formation of snow and ice during the cold season in order to guarantee their correct functioning. Managing the energy consumption of these devices is important in order to reduce the costs and minimise the environmental impact. While doing so, it is important to guarantee the reliability of the system. In this work we analyse reliability and energy consumption indicators for a system of (remotely controlled) rail road switch heaters by devel­oping and solving stochastic models based on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN) formalism. An on-off policy is considered for heating the switches, with parametric thresholds representing the temperatures activating/deactivating the heating. Initial investigations are carried on to understand the impact of different thresholds on the indicators under analysis (probability of failure and energy consumption).Source: Software Engineering for Resilient Systems. 7th International Workshop, pp. 82–98, Paris, France, 7-8/09/2015
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-23129-7_7

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