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2019 Contribution to book Restricted

Comparing results of natural language disambiguation tools with reports of manual reviews of safety-related standards
Biscoglio I., Ciancabilla A., Fusani M., Lami G., Trentanni G.
Methods and tools for detecting and measuring ambiguity in texts have been proposed for years, yet their efficacy is still under study for improvement, encouraged by results in various application fields (requirements, legal documents, interviews, ...). The paper presents a fresh-started process aimed at validating such methods and tools by applying some of them to a semi-structured data corpus. This corpus represents results of manual reviews, done by international experts, along with their source texts. The purpose is to check how much results of automated analysis are consistent with the reviewers reports. The application domain is that of safety-related system/software Standards in Railway. Thus, if we increase confidence in tools, then we also increase confidence in Standard correctness, which in turn impacts in conforming products.Source: From Software Engineering to Formal Methods and Tools, and Back, edited by Maurice H. ter Beek, Alessandro Fantechi, Laura Semini, pp. 239–249. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer, 2019
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-30985-5_15

See at: academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Contribution to book Restricted

QuARS: a pioneer tool for NL requirement analysis
Lami G., Fusani M., Trentanni G.
This paper summarizes the achievements of Stefania Gnesi's research activity in the area of the natural language requirements analysis and quality evaluation. The development of the QuARS tool has been the pivotal step of this research stream led by Stefania Gnesi at ISTI-CNR. A functional description of the QuARS tool is provided as well as a short report of its evolutions over a decade. The wide use of QuARS in several research and industrial contexts demonstrates the validity and the originality of Stefania's contribution in such an area of software engineering.Source: From Software Engineering to Formal Methods and Tools, and Back, edited by ter Beek M.H.; Fantechi A.; Semini L., pp. 211–219. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer, 2019
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-30985-5_13

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2017 Conference article Restricted

Are Standards an Ambiguity-Free Reference for Product Validation?
Ferrari A., Fusani M., Gnesi S.
The increased use of standards as references for safety-critical applications is drawing the attention of researchers on the fact that the responsibility for the safety of standard-compliant systems may depend not only on developers and assessors, but also on the standards themselves. This paper is focused particularly on some quality aspects of standard clauses, i.e., the natural language statements that are expressed by the standards, and to which a standard-compliant process or product is required to adhere. Various railway standards are considered, and some linguistic issues, potentially leading to ambiguity of clause interpretation, are discovered with the aid of natural language processing (NLP) tools. Real cases of problems in clause interpretation, taken from industrial experience, are reported, to show the possible impact in products and processes that must be validated against such clauses, and to justify the importance of the analysis.Source: Reliability, Safety, and Security of Railway Systems. Modelling, Analysis, Verification, and Certification - Second International Conference, RSSRail 2017, pp. 251–264, 14/11/2017, 17/11/2017
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-68499-4_17

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2016 Contribution to book Restricted

Software quality standards and models evolution: Greenness and reliability issues
Gordieiev O., Kharchenko V., Fusani M.
New attributes (characteristics, requirements) are proposed as an essential part of a software quality model related to green software. It consists of two main attributes, namely resource (energy) saving and sustainability. Evolution of software quality models is analyzed in context of greenness and reliability. In particular, well known software quality models beginning from on the? rst McCall ' s model (1977) to models described in standards ISO/IEC9126 (2001) and ISO/IEC25010 (2010) are analyzed according to green and reliability issues. Comparison of the software quality models is carried out using a special metrics of complexity and technique considering the number of levels and attributes and their semantics. Prediction of complexity for the next software quality model (2020) is ful ? lled and variants of green software attributes inclusion in model are proposed. Metrics for assessment of reliability, green related and other quality attributes are analyzed considering the standards ISO/IEC25023 and ISO/IEC9126. Results of comparing metric sets of for these standards are described.Source: INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, edited by Vitaliy Yakovyna, Heinrich C. Mayr, Mykola Nikitchenko, Grygoriy Zholtkevych, Aleksander Spivakovsky, Sotiris Batsakis, pp. 38–55. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30246-1_3

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2015 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Evolution of software quality models: green and reliability issues
Gordieiev O., Kharchenko V., Fusani M.
The group of attributes (characteristics, requirements) related to green software is essential part of software quality model. It consists of the two main attributes as a resources (energy) saving and sustainability. Evolution of software quality models is analyzed in context of green and reliability. In particular, well known software quality models beginning from on the first McCall's model (1977) to models described in standards ISO/IEC9126 (2001) and ISO/IEC25010 (2010) are analyzed according with green and reliability issues. Comparing of the software quality models are carried out using a special metrics of complexity and technique considering the number of levels and attributes and their semantics. Prediction of complexity for the next software quality model (2020) is fulfilled and variants of green software attributes inclusion in model are proposed.Source: 11th International Conference on ICT in Education, Research and Industrial Applications: Integration, Harmonization and Knowledge Transfer, ICTERI 2015, pp. 432–445, Lviv, Ukraine, 14-16/05/2015

See at: ceur-ws.org Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Conference article Restricted

A methodology to derive sustainability indicators for software development projects
Lami G., Fabbrini F., Fusani M.
The ever-increasing pervasiveness of Communication Technologies (ICT) not only is determining radical changes in everyone's life-style, in the social organizations, and in the economic dynamics, but it is causing relevant direct and indirect effects on the environment as well. One of the aspects not yet sufficiently addressed in literature is the sustainability of the software lifecycle. In this paper, we focus on the sustainability management of software development projects. In the practice, software development projects are managed by considering principally parameters as time, costs and quality of work products. We propose a methodological approach aimed at identifying sustainability indicators to be used in project management to set up sustainability objectives for a software development project, to control their achievement during the project itself and, possibly, to adopt corrective actions to maintain the project aligned with them. The availability of such sustainability indicators may contribute to reduce the carbon footprint of the activities performed in software development projects as well as to speed-up the development of a green culture in organizations developing software.Source: ICSSP 2013 - International Conference on Software and System Process, Software Engineering. Metrics, pp. 70–77, San Francisco, CA, USA, 18-19 May 2013
DOI: 10.1145/2486046.2486060

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2013 Journal article Restricted

Reducing textual ambiguity risk in high-impact standards.
Biscoglio I., Fusani M.
Safety-related standards indirectly impact into people's safety and environment integrity. The quality of these standards plays an important role in their correct and productive adoption. The paper is concerned with the analysis of the way standards are written, and in particular with the results of an automated textual inspection of five safety-related standards, aimed to discover possible inherent ambiguity of textual expressions. The analysis suggested that useful advice could be given to standard-making committees. Results of the analysis are shown and discussed.Source: Radìoelektronnì ì komp'ûternì sistemi 5 (2013): 198–203.

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2012 Conference article Restricted

Software sustainability from a process-centric perspective
Lami G., Fabbrini F., Fusani M.
ICT significantly contributes to the global carbon dioxide production. In the last years the research addressed the problem of increasing ICT sustainability from different perspectives. In this paper this problem is addressed from a software process perspective. Sustainability of software process is approached in a systematic way by defining a core set of processes that represent the activities to be performed in order to introduce and integrate the greenness culture in an organization developing software. The processes have been defined so that they can be measured in terms of process capability according to the ISO/IEC 15504 standard. The relationships between process capability and sustainability are discussed as well.Source: Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement, 19th European Conference (EUROSPI 2012), pp. 97–108, Vienna, Austria, 25-27 June 2012
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31199-4_9

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2012 Conference article Restricted

A case study of requirements quality analysis
Biscoglio I., Coco A., Fabbrini F., Fusani M., Lami G., Marchetti E., Trentanni G.
Requirements analysis occupies a prominent part in the activities of a product life cycle. Out of the various aspects of the analysis, those related to the quality of requirements can have a large impact in the quality of the final product. Since requirements are first conceived as natural language expressions, and intensive use of automation is advised to keep project cost at reasonable level, it seems opportune to develop requirements analysis by means of natural language processing techniques. In spite of the scarce interest drawn by these issues within the industrial environment, the advantages of adopting natural language processing techniques to improve the quality of requirements are thought worth of repaying some research efforts, so the issue has been studied for years in the academic world and several solutions are proposed in literature. In this paper, a short survey of the existing solutions is presented and an approach that makes use of a model, a tool and a process to analyse the quality of requirements is proposed and compared. Then the results of applying the approach to the case study of requirements for train-control design, issued by the European Railway Agency, are reported and discussed. Also an industrial experience of a Service Centre about requirement analysis is shown and related application research issues are proposed.Source: 8th International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology, Lisboa, Portugal, 3-6 September 2012

See at: 2012.quatic.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2012 Conference article Restricted

Can safety be obtained through good practices for requirement writing?
Biscoglio I., Fusani M., Gnesi S.
Software Requirements analysis of quality characteristics as completeness, consistency and unambiguity assume an important role in the safety-critical software. We consider then the contributions to Natural Lan-guage (NL) Software Requirements Analysis as good practices or recommendations for producing high level quality NL requirements. From a survey of different approaches and solutions, it is possible to draw an incremental list of Good Practices (GP) for writing NL software requirements, making them understandable to their users, typically from the linguistic point of view, thus reducing the efforts for the analysis. The industrial experiences of two research/service laboratories about requirements analysis are compared with the suggestions of the literature and the technology, and the results are shown.Source: International Scientific Technical Conference on Dependable System, Services and Technologies, pp. 252–257, Sevastopol, Ukraine, 25-28 May 2012

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2011 Conference article Restricted

ISO/IEC 15504-10: motivations for a new safety standard
Lami G., Fabbrini F., Fusani M.
ISO/IEC 15504 Part 10 Safety Extension has been recently developed in order to make consistent judgment regarding process capability or improvement priorities for safety related systems development. To avoid misunderstanding and confute reluctance and worry related to such a safety extension, its contents, purpose and intended usage are explained in this paper. The authors provide also a comparison between the ISO/IEC 15504 Part 10 and other existing safety standards for software (with particular focus on ISO/IEC 61508) as well as a discussion on possible integrations and consequent benefits of its usage.Source: The IET System Safety Conference, Birmingham, 20 - 22 September 2011

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2011 Conference article Restricted

Is automotive SPICE Suitable to assess product lines-based software process?
Lami Giuseppe, Fabbrini Fabrizio, Fusani Mario
Software Product Lines is a popular development scheme in Automotive. Many software suppliers of car manufacturers have established in last years Software Product Lines frameworks in order to improve the reuse and quality of their software-intensive automobiles' components. At the same time Automotive SPICE has become a very popular standard for software process evaluation and improvement, mainly in the European automotive industry. Although Automotive SPICE has been developed with the aim at making the general ISO/IEC 15504 standard more suitable for automotive applications, where it is being extensively applied, yet it presents some aspects that make it not completely suitable for the SPL approach. This fact prevents full exploitation of the benefits of adopting SPICE, as SPL-based projects are mostly applied in the automotive application domain. In this paper we discuss the drawbacks of Automotive SPICE when applied in SPL-based contexts to identify the related risks and their mitigation policies.Source: 2nd Eastern European Regional Conference on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems, EERC-ECBS, pp. 157–158, Bratislava, 5-6 September 2011

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2011 Conference article Restricted

ISO/IEC 15504-10: Motivations for Another Safety Standard
Lami Giuseppe, Fabbrini Fabrizio, Fusani Mario
This paper presents the new standard ISO/IEC 15504 Part 10 Safety Extension. It has been developed to extend the well-known ISO/IEC 15504 standard for process assessment and improvement in order to make consistent judgment regarding process capability or improvement priorities for safety related systems development. In order to avoid misunderstanding and confute reluctance and worry related to such a new standard, its contents, purpose and intended are explained in this paper. Moreover, comparison between the ISO/IEC 15504 Part 10 and other existing safety standards for software is provided as well as a discussion on possible integrations and consequent benefits of its usage.Source: 30th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2011, pp. 284–295, Napoli, 19-22 September 2011
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-24270-0_21

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2011 Conference article Restricted

Process scenarios in open source software certification
Fabbrini Fabrizio, Fusani Mario, Marchetti Eda
Certification of Open Source Software (OSS) presents inherent trade-offs due to the necessity of precisely identifying both a product and an independent certification agent, and on the other of maintain the peculiar, valuable OSS characteristic of being available to an unlimited multiplicity of actors for trial, use and change. This is an intriguing challenge, usually solved by removing from the picture the certifying agent and providing an intrinsic certification by means of rigorous, reapplicable property demonstrations, adopting Formal Methods (FM) in expressing and verifying the code. As such approach, yet quite valuable and good-promising, has some restrictions (such as the limited set of provable product qualities), we propose to tackle the problem by analysing the various processes executed by different OSS stakeholders, including the process of an independent Certification Body. In the paper some kinds of representative scenarios in which such processes interleave are presented and discussed. The aim is to introduce a process-centered perspective for OSS that can stimulate research to further understand and mitigate the mentioned trade-offs.Source: 5th International Workshop on Foundation and Techniques for Open Source Certification, OpenCert 2011, pp. 3–18, Montevideo, Uruguay, 14-15 November 2011

See at: opencert.iist.unu.edu Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2010 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Damages and benefits of certification: a perspective from an indipendent assessment body
Fusani M., Marchetti E.
The paper investigates on the nature of software certification and its reasons of being. The numerous factors that impact on the achievement of its purposes are discussed, and also compared in the cases of Proprietary Software and Open Source Software. Some relevant features of a certification process for Open Source Software are finally proposedSource: Electronic communications of the EASST 33 (2010): 2–12.

See at: journal.ub.tu-berlin.de Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2010 Conference article Unknown

Analyzing quality aspects in safety-related standards
Biscoglio I., Fusani M.
Source: 7th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 2010

See at: CNR ExploRA


2010 Conference article Restricted

Evaluating web site quality: a statistical approach
Biscoglio I., Coco A., Fabbrini F., Fusani M., Lami G., Trentanni G.
The paper introduces a general approach to the construction of a Quality Model for Web Sites. The process for constructing such a newly conceived model is presented and discussed, and examples of its application are shown.Source: 10th International Conference on Quality Software, pp. 332–336, Zhangjiajie, China, 14-15 July 2010
DOI: 10.1109/qsic.2010.72

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2010 Conference article Restricted

Solving automotive SPICE open issues: an Italian initiative
Lami G., Fabbrini F., Fusani M., Coco A., Bella F., Buglione L., Coletta A., Falcini F., Panaroni P., Ricci L.
This paper presents the results of the ASAI (Automotive SPICE Assessors and Improvers) working group. The aim of the ASAI is to address open issues in the real application of the standard Automotive SPICE in the automotive industry. The outcomes of the ASAI activities are a set of guidelines on how some relevant open issues (expressed by means of questions) can be addressed and solved. These guidelines have been achieved by consensus after joint analysis and discussions. The purpose of this paper is to provide developers, assessors, improvers and, in general, the whole automotive software community, with a reference when specific decisions have to be taken for solving defined open issues in applying Automotive SPICE. Moreover, we hope this paper could be able to trigger a larger discussion for enhancing the uniformity and validity of Automotive SPICE assessments.Source: Tenth International SPICE Conference, pp. 95–104, Pisa, Italy, 18-20 May 2010

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2010 Conference article Restricted

An approach to ambiguity analysis in safety-related standards
Biscoglio I., Coco A., Fusani M., Gnesi S., Trentanni G.
Standards for systems and software lifecycle processes have become rather popular in the last decade. Being expressed in natural language, their requirements, or clauses, are exposed to the risk of ambiguity, vagueness and subjectivity, even when safety of people and environment is the Standard's main concern. The paper addresses some issues of this problem and presents an experimental approach to the determination and evaluation of a set of properties of the clauses, which capture the notion of the quality of their expressions. The approach adopts a rather intuitive quality model for the English language and includes the use of a tool for sentence processing. Results of a descriptive analysis of some well-known, safety-related Standards for different software application domains are shown and discussed.Source: 7th International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology, pp. 461–466, Oporto, Portugal, 29 September - 2 October 2010
DOI: 10.1109/quatic.2010.83

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2010 Report Open Access OPEN

E-COMWEB: a quality Model for e-commerce Web sites
Biscoglio I., Coco A., Trentanni G., Fusani M.
This paper introduces a statistical approach to the construction of a new Quality Model for Web Sites (E-COMWEB). A brief overview on Web Sites Quality Models and used top-down and bottom- up approaches are introduced. The approach to the construction of E-COMWEB is different from most of the current ones: exploiting the considerable number of available Web Sites, it uses statistical analysis for validating the relations between variables in a traditional Quality Model and finding new ones. The process for constructing such a newly conceived model and its composition are presented and discussed, and examples of its application are shown.Source: ISTI Technical reports, 2010

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access