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2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Visual Computing Lab - 30 anni di grafica 3D in Italia
Montani C., Scopigno R.
In questo numero di Archeomatica, Luca Papi (CNR) presenta la prima serie tematica dedicata alla presentazione di cinque Laboratori del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, il grande Ente Pubblico di Ricerca in Italia. Per ciascun laboratorio i direttori saranno chiamati a descrivere le competenze, le attività di ricerca, i progetti, le collaborazioni nazionali e internazionali della struttura di cui sono responsabili. Questa serie di articoli si apre con la presentazione del Visual Computing Lab dell'Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione "A. Faedo" (ISTI) di Pisa afferente al Dipartimento di Ingegneria, ICT e Tecnologie per l'Energia e i Trasporti (DIITET) del CNR.Source: Archeomatica (Roma) 6 (2015): 18–22.

See at: mediageo.it Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2013 Conference article Restricted

Il CNR dopo la CEP
Montani C., Andronico P., Raviolo C., Bozzi A., Codenotti B., Meghini C., Sommani M., Tarabella L., Scopigno R., Baraglia R., Perego R.
A short history of some of the ICT issues developed in the Institutes of CNR in Pisa since the 60s and that, in the opinion of the authors, had its roots in the CEP (Pisa Electronic Computer).Source: La CEP prima della CEP: storia dell'informatica. Atti, pp. 41–66, Pisa, Italy, 11-12 novembre 2011

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2013 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN

Tecnologie digitali visuali per il patrimonio culturale: un percorso di evoluzione ventennale
Scopigno R., Montani C.
This short note presentes an overview of the activities of the Visual Computing lab in the last twenty years on the subject of the digitization and visual presentation of Cultural Heritage artworks.Source: Progettare le arti - Studi in onore di Clara Baracchini, edited by Lorenzo Carletti, Cristiano Giometti, pp. 197–204. Pisa: Edizioni Mnemosyne, 2013

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2013 Contribution to book Unknown

Il CNR dopo la CEP
Claudio Montani, Patrizia Andronico, Claudia Raviolo, Andrea Bozzi, Bruno Codenotti, Carlo Meghini, Marco Sommani, Leonello Tarabella, Roberto Scopigno, Ranieri Baraglia, Raffaele Perego
Una breve [e parziale] storia di alcune tematiche ICT di successo che si sono sviluppate negli Istituti CNR di Pisa a partire dagli anni '60 e che, a giudizio degli autori, rappresentano a buon diritto rami importanti di quell'albero rigoglioso che ha avuto le sue radici nella CEP.Source: La CEP prima della CEP: storia dell'informatica. Divulgazione scientifica e didattica sperimentale. Atti del Convegno, Pisa 11-12 novembre 2011. Pisa: Pisa University Press, 2013

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2008 Contribution to book Restricted

Integrazione di dati tridimensionali e campionamento del colore a fini di documentazione e visualizzazione interattiva
Callieri M., Cignoni P., Ganovelli, Montani C., Pingi P., Scopigno R.
Le tecniche di visualizzazione grafica tridimensionale accoppiate alle più recenti metodiche per il rilievo delle caratteristiche di forma e colore aprono notevoli possibilità di analisi, studio e documentazione nel settore dei Beni Culturali 2. Come emerso dai precedenti contributi è oggi possibile campionare la superficie di un'opera d'arte in modo molto accurato e con una risoluzione spaziale molto alta (si parla in entrambi i casi di valori dell'ordine di pochi micron), ottenendo modelli tridimensionali estremamente fedeli all'originale 3. Inoltre, e' oggi possibile acquisire informazioni sulle modalità con cui la superficie stessa riflette la radiazione luminosa, sia acquisendo la luce riflessa sulle varie bande 4 che rilevando come diverse direzioni di incidenza siano riflesse nelle varie possibili direzioni di riflessione (Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function, BRDF). In questa sezione vedremo come tale informazione possa essere integrata e fruita dallo studioso per mezzo di uno strumento di visualizzazione 3D.Source: Masolino, Storie di S. Giuliano - Un restauro tra Italia e Francia, edited by Marco Ciatti, Cecilia Frosinini, Roberto Bellucci, pp. 69–72. Firenze: Edifir, 2008

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2007 Journal article Restricted

High quality digital acquisition and virtual presentation of three-dimensional models
Scopigno R., Cignoni P., Montani C.
Detailed and accurate digital 3D models can be produced with 3D scanning devices, which allow to convert reality in digital form in a cost- and time-effective manner. The capabilities of this technology and the global methodology are presented here in a synthetic manner. Moreover, we focus on the main issues which are preventing its wider use in contemporary applications, such as: the considerable user intervention required, the usually incomplete sampling of the artifact surface and the complexity of the models produced. Another emerging issue is how to support the visual presentation of the models (local or remote) with guaranteed interactive rendering rates. Some practical examples from the results of current projects in the Cultural Heritage field will be shown.Source: Archeologia e calcolatori 18 (2007): 163–179.
Project(s): EPOCH via OpenAIRE

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2007 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Il rilievo digitale tridimensionale, un nuovo strumento di analisi e documentazione per il restauro
Scopigno R., Callieri M., Montani C.
An abstract is not availableSource: Il CNR e le strategie di conservazione del Patrimonio Culturale, CNR, pp. 133–138, Rome, Italy, 14 giugno 2006

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2006 Journal article Restricted

Ambient occlusion and edge cueing to enhance real time molecular visualization
Tarini M., Cignoni P., Montani C.
The paper presents a set of combined techniques to enhance the real-time visualization of simple or complex molecules (up to order of 10^6 atoms) space fill mode. The proposed approach includes an innovative technique for efficient computation and storage of ambient occlusion terms, a small set of GPU accelerated procedural impostors for space-fill and ball-and-stick rendering, and novel edge-cueing techniques. As a result, the user's understanding of the three-dimensional structure under inspection is strongly increased (even for still images), while the rendering still occurs in real time.Source: IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics 12 (2006): 1237–1244. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2006.115
DOI: 10.1109/tvcg.2006.115

See at: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Restricted


2006 Journal article Unknown

La Cattedrale di Pisa : un rilievo 3D per l'integrazione con i sistemi informativi di documentazione storica e di restauro
Balzani M., Uccelli F., Scopigno R., Montani C.
An abstract is not availableSource: Architetti.com (Santarcangelo Romagna) N. 6/ (2006): 10–11.

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2006 Conference article Restricted

Recovering 3D architectural information from dense digital models of buildings
Spinelli A., Ganovelli F., Montani C., Scopigno R.
In recent years the progress of 3D scanning technologies and the consequent growing commercialization of scanners opened a large spectrum of opportunities for many professionals. In particular, architects and engineers may access to a digital model of a building without having to model it using a CAD software. On the other hand, there are two important differences between the digitized and the handcrafted model. The first is the absence of interpretation. The digitized model is only a set of polygons that describe, possibly in a very accurate manner, the scanned object. It does not provide the user with any other information about what a surface is (a wall, a window, an arch etc.) that, conversely, can be incorporated during the editing in a CAD session. The second difference is excess of realism. In the digitized models the are no planar walls, no right angles, no straight edges, simply because they are not, at the millimetric scale. Unfortunately, if a model must be used in a FEM simulation, for example, a CAD like model would be required. This paper describes an application framework and some techniques that have been implemented to help a non computer-graphics user in handling digital models of buildings acquired using 3D scanning. The techniques permit to visualize efficiently the models independently from their size, recover 3D information (measurements, sections), extract geometric features and fit high level geometric primitives.Source: Eurographics Italian Chapter 2006, Catania, Italy, 22-24/02/2006

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2006 Conference article Restricted

Simulating drilling on tetrahedral meshes
Turini G., Ganovelli F., Montani C.
Bone drilling is a fundamental task in several surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, cochlear implantation, orbital surgery. It consists in eroding the part of the bone in contact with the tip of the surgical tool when a sufficient pressure is exerted. Since the bone is an almost rigid material, the bone drilling simulations usually employ voxel-based representations of the bone, so that it is easy to show material removal by playing with material density in the voxels. Unfortunately, there are cases in which drilling is only a part of the task, and parts of the same object are also cut away or, worse, the bone is slightly deformable and therefore voxel-based representations do not work well. We propose a novel method to simulate drilling on objects represented explicitly by means of a tetrahedral mesh. The key idea of our method is to create an alternative representation of the tetrahedron when it is partially eroded. Such representation consists of a set of smaller tetrahedra obtained by a hierarchical decomposition of the original one, and combined to represent the current status of the erosion.Source: Eurographics 2006, Vienna, 04-08/09/2006

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2006 Conference article Restricted

Starting the CENOBIUM project : the cloister of Monreale (Sicily) revealed
Baracchini C., Callieri M., Corsini M., Dellepiane M., Dercks U., Keultjes D., Montani C., Scognamiglio M., Scopigno R., Sigismondi R., Wolf G.
The paper presents the guidelines of the CENOBIUM project and the first results on the capitals of the cloister of Monreale (Sicily). The CENOBIUM project aims at demonstrating the strength of the integration of modern representation and analysis technologies in the context of the knowledge, documentation and fruition of 3D cultural heritage. The wonderful capitals of the cloister of Monreale are the case study of our project. In fact, most of the capitals represent episodes of the Holy Bible and they can be completely appreciated, studied and documented merely by integrating 2D and 3D technologies. The paper describes the different acquisition and documentation modalities adopted in the project: high resolution digital imaging, short range 3D laser scanning for the capitals, long range 3D laser scanning for the cloister, panoramic views, integration of the geometry of the capitals with the high resolution color images. Moreover, it outlines the main components of the system which will allow the user to virtually move inside the cloister, to choose a particular capital, and to analyze and study the 2D, 3D and text information related to it. By means of innovative technological solutions, all the information, at the highest level of detail and resolution, will be available locally, on a kiosk installation, and on the web.Source: The 7th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Cipro, novembre 2006

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2006 Report Open Access OPEN

Splitting Cubes: a Fast and Robust Technique for Representing Cuts with Mesh-free Methods
Pietroni N., Ganovelli F., Cignoni P., Montani C.
This paper presents a novel technique to represent cuts on deformable models implemented with mesh-free methods. Mesh-free methods have become a popular choice for modeling deformable objects. Unfortunately, among their many good properties, they do not explicitly represent the surface of the object and it seems quite a difficult task to enable real-time cutting on these models. Our method uses a regular decomposition of the space in cubic cells and encodes the surface using only the intersections with the edges of the cubes and handling implicitly all the changes on topology. Furthermore a new way to update the physical model is introduced which is easily implemented by the graphics hardwareSource: ISTI Technical reports, 2006

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2006 Conference article Restricted

Simulating drilling on tetrahedral meshes
G. Turini, F. Ganovelli, C. Montani
Bone drilling is a fundamental task in several surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, cochlear implantation, orbital surgery. It consists in eroding the part of the bone in contact with the tip of the surgical tool when a sufficient pressure is exerted. Since the bone is an almost rigid material, the bone drilling simulations usually employ voxel-based representations of the bone, so that it is easy to show material removal by playing with material density in the voxels. Unfortunately, there are cases in which drilling is only a part of the task, and parts of the same object are also cut away or, worse, the bone is slightly deformable and therefore voxel-based representations do not work well. We propose a novel method to simulate drilling on objects represented explicitly by means of a tetrahedral mesh. The key idea of our method is to create an alternative representation of the tetrahedron when it is partially eroded. Such representation consists of a set of smaller tetrahedra obtained by a hierarchical decomposition of the original one, and combined to represent the current status of the erosion.Source: Eurographics 2006, pp. 127–131, Vienna, September 4-8, 2006

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2005 Journal article Restricted

Minimizing user intervention in registering 2D images to 3D models
Franken T., Dellepiane M., Ganovelli F., Cignoni P., Montani C., Scopigno R.
This paper proposes a novel technique to speed up the registration of 2D images to 3D models. This problem often arises in the process of digitalization of real objects, because pictures are often taken independently from the 3D geometry. Although there are a number of methods to solve the problem of registration automatically, they all need some further assumptions, so in the most general case the process still requires the user to provide some information about how the image corresponds to geometry, for example providing pointto-point correspondences. We propose a method based on a graph representation where the nodes represent the 2D photos and the 3D object, and arcs encode correspondences, which are either image-to-geometry or image-to-image point pairs. This graph is used to infer new correspondences from the ones specified by the user and from successful alignment of single images and factually encode the state of the registration process. After each action performed by the user, our system explores the states space to find out the shortest path from the current state to a state where all the images are aligned, i.e. a final state and therefore guides the user in the selection of further alignment actions for a faster completion of the job. Experiments on empirical data are reported to show the effectiveness of the system in reducing considerably the user workload.Source: The visual computer 21 (2005): 619–628.

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2005 Conference article Restricted

Tools for inverse mapping and visualization of multi-spectral image data on 3D scanned representations of drawings
Callieri M., Cignoni P., Ganovelli F., Pingi P., Ponchio F., Montani C., Scopigno R.
A new prospective for the study, documentation and presentation of Cultural Heritage is opened by the joint usage of the tools for the automatic reconstruction of digital 3D models and the instruments for interactive 3D visualization. New techniques are available to perform high-resolution sampling of both the shape and the multi-band reflection properties of painted surfaces. The digital 3D models produced are extremely accurate and rich of information, as it has been proved in the experiments run on the Leonardo's Madonna of the Yarnwinder. This paper presents an overview of the techniques needed to build high-quality 3D models from the raw data produced by the scanning devices and describes how to process those models to make them usable in interactive applications. A very critical point is how to integrate the reflection properties with 3D shape models; this integration (based on texture mapping) allows us to produce textured 3D models that allow a joint visualization of shape and color attributes. The interactive visualization tools developed by ISTI-CNR are described, presenting both their features and potential for the visual presentation and analysis of works of art. Examples of the results obtained on the Madonna of the Yarnwinder are presented.Source: SPIE International Symposium on Optical Metrology, Munich, 13-17 giugno 2005
DOI: 10.1117/12.617733

See at: academic.microsoft.com Restricted | proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | spiedigitallibrary.org Restricted | ui.adsabs.harvard.edu Restricted | www.spiedigitallibrary.org Restricted


2005 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

Assisting the user in image to geometry alignment
Franken T., Cignoni P., Dellepiane M., Ganovelli F., Montani C., Scopigno R.
This paper proposes a novel technique to speed up the registration of 2D images to 3D models. This problem often arises in the process of digitalization of real objects, because pictures are often taken independently from the 3D geometry. Although there are a number of methods to solve the problem of registration automatically, they all need some further assumptions, so in the most general case the process still requires the user to provide some information about how the image corresponds to geometry, for example providing pointto-point correspondences. We propose a method based on a graph representation where the nodes represent the 2D photos and the 3D object, and arcs encode correspondences, which are either image-to-geometry or image-to-image point pairs. This graph is used to infer new correspondences from the ones specified by the user and from successful alignment of single images and factually encode the state of the registration process. After each action performed by the user, our system explores the states space to find out the shortest path from the current state to a state where all the images are aligned, i.e. a final state and therefore guides the user in the selection of further alignment actions for a faster completion of the job. Experiments on empirical data are reported to show the effectiveness of the system in reducing considerably the user workload.Source: Workshop Italy-Canada 2005 - 3D Digital Imaging and Modeling: Applications of Heritage, Industry, Medicine and Land, Padua, Italy, May, 17-18 2005

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2005 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

Enhancing processing and visualization efficiency of 3D scanned meshes
Callieri M., Cignoni P., Fasano A., Montani C., Pingi P., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
The construction of detailed and accurate 3D models is made easier by the increasing diffusion of 3D scanning devices. These allow to build accurate digital models of real 3D objects in a cost- and time-effective manner. The talk will present the capabilities of this technology focusing mainly on some issues which are preventing its wider use, such as the considerable user intervention required, the usually incomplete sampling of the artifact surface and the complexity of the models produced. Another emerging issue is how to support the visual presentation of the models (local or remote) with guaranteed interactive rendering rates. Some examples of the results of current projects, mainly in the Cultural Heritage field, will be shown.Source: International Symposium on the CREST Digital Archiving Project, pp. 58–64, Tokyo, Japan, 8-9 marzo 2005

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2005 Contribution to book Unknown

Fondamenti di grafica tridimensionale interattiva
Scateni R., Cignoni P., Montani C., Scopigno R.
Il libro presenta i fondamenti di grafica tridimensionale InterattivaSource: . Milano: Mc Graw-Hill, 2005

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2005 Journal article Restricted

Exploiting the scanning sequence for automatic registration of large sets of range maps
Pingi P., Fasano A., Cignoni P., Montani C., Scopigno R.
Range map registration is still the most time consuming phase in the processing of 3D scanning data. This is because real scanning sets are composed of hundreds of range maps and their registration is still partially manual. We propose a new method to manage complex scan sets acquired by following a regular scanner pose pattern. Our goal is to define an initial adjacency graph by coarsely aligning couples of range maps that we know are partially overlapping thanks to the adopted scanning strategy. For a pair of partially overlapping range maps, our iterative solution locates pairs of correspondent vertices through the computation of a regular n×n kernel which takes into account vertex normals and is defined in the 2D space of the range map (represented in implicit 2D format rather than as a triangle mesh in 3D space). The shape-characterization kernel and the metrics defined give a sufficiently accurate shape matching, which has been proven to fit well the requirements of automatic registration. This initial set of adjacency arcs can then be augmented by the automatic identification of the other significant arcs, by adopting a criterion based on approximate range map overlap computation. With respect to the solutions present in literature, the simplifications and assumptions adopted make our solution specifically oriented to complex 3D scanning campaigns (hundreds of range maps). The proposed method can coarsely register range maps in parallel with the acquisition activity and this is a valuable help in assessing on site the completeness of the sampling of large objects.Source: Computer graphics forum (Print) 24 (2005): 517–526. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2005.00877.x
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8659.2005.00877.x

See at: Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | Computer Graphics Forum Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted