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2021 Contribution to book Restricted

Virtual clones for cultural heritage applications
Potenziani M., Banterle F., Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
Digital technologies are now mature for producing high quality digital replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artifacts. The research results produced in the last decade have shown an impressive evolution and consolidation of the technologies for acquiring high-quality digital 3D models, encompassing both geometry and color (or, better, surface reflectance properties). Some recent technologies for constructing 3D models enriched by a high-quality encoding of the color attribute will be presented. The focus of this paper is to show and discuss practical solutions, which could be deployed without requiring the installation of a specific or sophisticated acquisition lab setup. In the second part of this paper, we focus on new solutions for the interactive visualization of complex models, adequate for modern communication channels such as the web and the mobile platforms. Together with the algorithms and approaches, we show also some practical examples where high-quality 3D models have been used in CH research, restoration and conservation.Source: From Pen to Pixel - Studies of the Roman Forum and the Digital Future of World Heritage, edited by Fortini Patrizia, Krusche Krupali, pp. 225–233. Roma: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2021

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.lerma.it Restricted


2019 Other Unknown

Three Armenian Manuscripts from Tuscany
Callieri M., Pingi P., Potenziani M., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
For the temporary exhibition "Three Armenian Manuscripts from Tuscany", taking palce at the Matenadaran Museum (Jerevan, Armenia) from June 9th 2019 to January 9 2020, The Visual Computing Lab of ISTI-CNR created a multimedia interactive kiosk presenting to the museum visitors the pages of the codices and the rooms of the libraries that preserved the books in their long life. The photographic campaign of the codices and buildings has also been used in the monographic volume "Three Armenian Manuscripts from Tuscany (13th - 14th century)", by Anna Rita Fantoni e Giovanna Rasario. Mandragora, Firenze. 2019. ISBN 978-88-7461-475-2 The Kiosk presents, commented by the texts edited by the experts Anna Rita Fantoni e Giovanna Rasario, high-res 360° panorama images of ther libraries (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana and Biblioteca di S. Matteo), high-res images of selected pages of the three codices displayed int he exhibition, and relightable RTI images of the decorated cover of one of the codices and of a parchment page illuminated in gold. The Kiosk is based on web technologies: this makes possible the installation on a stand-alone PC (like in the exhibition) but also a web publishing, linked just above. The generation of RTI, and the web visualization of RTI and multiresolution images is managed by the library Relight, developed by ISTI-CNR.

See at: CNR ExploRA | vcg.isti.cnr.it


2019 Contribution to book Closed Access

Rilievo 3D di Alchimia, ed uso dei modelli 3D per studio e divulgazione
Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Lureau A., Pavoni G., Pingi P., Potenziani M., Scopigno R.
Le tecniche di digitalizzazione 3D si sono fatte largo prepotentemente nel campo dei beni culturali. Dalle prime sperimentazioni dell'utilizzo di modelli 3D di due decenni fa, si è arrivati oggi ad una ampia diffusione e democratizzazione di queste tecnologie, fino a poter dire che la digitalizzazione 3D è uno strumento ormai essenziale nella maggior parte dei progetti di conservazione, restauro, documentazione e studio dei beni culturali. Nell'ultimo periodo, poi, anche le tecnologie di riproduzione fisica da modelli 3D (3D printing e la prototipazione rapida) stanno entrando nella routine di queste tipologie di azione. Un aspetto chiave dei modelli digitali 3D risiede nella loro "doppia natura": -i modelli 3D sono pura informazione numerica e geometrica, sono fatti, cioè, di numeri che rappresentano le misure e la forma di un oggetto fisico. Hanno dunque proprietà metriche, e le misure in essi contenute possono essere usate per calcoli tecnici, documentazione, simulazione e riproduzione fisica; -i modelli 3D però hanno anche un aspetto "visuale", cioè possono essere visualizzati e disegnati a schermo formando immagini che, visivamente, corrispondono alla percezione che noi avremmo davanti all'oggetto reale (specialmente quando il modello 3D geometrico è corredato anche di informazione di tessitura o colore). Questa doppia natura unisce una precisione, una scientificità del dato, alla possibilità di interagire con esso in maniera naturale, come faremmo con l'oggetto reale. Se è vero che nelle prime sperimentazioni, i modelli 3D sono stati utilizzati solamente come fonte di misure e di dati, oppure solo come "gadget visuale" per presentare al pubblico l'oggetto d'arte, possiamo dire che oggi, con il progredire delle tecnologie, e soprattutto con la definizione di protocolli di lavoro più completi, questi due aspetti riescono ad essere sfruttati appieno in maniera congiunta. In questo lavoro, per l'appunto, è stato possibile sfruttare appieno le potenzialità del media digitale 3D, sia dal punto di vista scientifico-documentale, che come strumento di disseminazione e di coinvolgimento del pubblico.Source: Alchimia di Jackson Pollock - Viaggio all'interno della materia, edited by Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Francesca Bettini, Roberto Bellucci, pp. 145–154. Firenze: Edifir - Edizioni Firenze s.r.l., 2019

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Developing and maintaining a web 3D viewer for the CH community: an evaluation of the 3DHOP framework
Potenziani M., Callieri M., Scopigno R.
3DHOP (3D Heritage On-line Presenter) has been released 4 years ago, as an open-source framework for the creation of interactive visualization of 3D content on the web, aimed at the CH field. Transforming a research tool into a software "product" usable by the heterogeneous CH community is not a simple task and requires a significant amount of resources plus a specific design. This work presents the evolution of the 3DHOP system, and the complex relationship with its community of users, made of content creators, CH experts and general public. We will discuss the new features introduced, as well as the design and implementation strategy employed to maintain the software and make it usable by developers. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the platform by illustrating some of the applications built with 3DHOP either internally or by external users, as well as by presenting the results of a survey aimed at gathering the opinions and suggestions of the user community.Source: 16th Eurographics Workshop on Graphics and Cultural Heritage, Vien, Austria, 12-15 November 2018

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.chnt.at Open Access


2018 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Publishing and consuming 3D content on the Web. A survey
Potenziani M., Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Scopigno R.
Three-dimensional content is becoming an important component of the World Wide Web environment. From the advent of WebGL to the present, a wide number of solutions have been developed (including libraries, middleware, and applications), encouraging the establishment of 3D data as online media of practical use. The fast development of 3D technologies and related web-based resources makes it difficult to identify and properly understand the current trends and open issues. Starting from these premises, this survey analyzes the state of the art of 3D web publishing, reviews the possibilities provided by the major current approaches, proposes a categorization of the features supported by existing solutions, and cross-maps these with the requirements of a few main application domains. The results of this analysis should help in defining the technical characteristics needed to build efficient and effective 3D data presentation, taking into account the application contexts.Source: Foundations and trends in computer graphics and vision 10 (2018): 244–333. doi:10.1561/0600000083
DOI: 10.1561/0600000083

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Foundations and Trends® in Computer Graphics and Vision Open Access | CNR ExploRA Restricted | www.nowpublishers.com Restricted


2018 Doctoral thesis Open Access OPEN

Exploring Effective Publishing in the Web3D World
Potenziani M.
Web3D is most certainly an intriguing world. Its story has changed suddenly with the advent of WebGL, evolving from a slow and stagnant past to a dynamic and rapidly-evolving present. 3D data is becoming one of the key digital media on the Web, with a wide number of solutions specifically designed for publishing and consuming three-dimensional content online. Unfortunately, this field experimented a quick and often chaotic growth, presenting nowadays a dichotomy between pure research-oriented and market-oriented approaches. This has somehow shaped the directions of Web3D development, creating de-facto standards and solutions tailored to specific fields, or only focused towards mainstream publishing actions and thus unable to cope with the needs of more specialized and technical 3D users. Under these premises, the aim of the thesis has been to investigate the shortcomings and missing features of Web3D technology, as well as to propose a solution aimed at filling these empty spots. We start by presenting an analysis of the state of the art of 3D Web publishing, surveying the features provided by the major current approaches, useful to categorize the existing solutions and to cross-map them with the requirements of the different application domains. Then, in what is the main contribution of the thesis, we exploit the result of our analysis of the Web3D and discuss the design and implementation of a flexible platform, aimed at providing an effective framework for the Web presentation of specialized 3D content. Our solution is tailored to cope with the needs of a challenging application context, Cultural Heritage. Therefore it exploits highly-efficient solutions for data transfer and rendering, intuitive interaction/manipulation paradigms, and features enabling trans-media elements connections. To validate the proposed framework, the thesis presents the results of two specific interactive visualization applications, addressing different Web3D presentation needs: a first one aimed at a museum dissemination initiative, and a second one developed to support scientific analysis. Finally, we also tested the capabilities of our platform for the implementation of service-oriented applications: a project aimed at providing a service for the easy publication of complex, technical media types; and a more structured scenario of multimedia Digital Libraries, proposing a pipeline useful to rationalize and speed-up the publication of heterogeneous 3D dataset on a multimedia repository.

See at: etd.adm.unipi.it Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2017 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Delivering and using 3D models on the web: are we ready?
Scopigno R., Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Ponchio F., Potenziani M.
Digital technologies are now mature for producing high quality digital replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) assets. The research results produced in the last decade ignited an impressive evolution and consolidation of the technologies for acquiring high-quality digital three-dimensional (3D) models, encompassing both geometry and color. What remains still an open problem is how to deliver those data and related knowledge to our society. The web is nowadays the main channel for the dissemination of knowledge. Emerging commercial solutions for web-publishing of 3D data are consolidating and becoming a de-facto standard for many applications (e-commerce, industrial products, education, etc.). In this framework, CH is a very specific domain, requiring highly flexible solutions. Some recent experiences are presented, aimed at providing a support to the archival of archaeological 3D data, supporting web-based publishing of very high-resolution digitization results and finally enabling the documentation of complex restoration actions. All those examples have been recently implemented on the open-source 3D Heritage Online Presenter (3DHOP) platform, developed at CNR-ISTI.Source: Virtual archaeology review 8 (2017): 1–9. doi:10.4995/var.2017.6405
DOI: 10.4995/var.2017.6405
Project(s): EMOTIVE via OpenAIRE, PARTHENOS via OpenAIRE

See at: Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Virtual Archaeology Review Open Access


2016 Conference article Open Access OPEN

ARIADNE visual media service: easy Web publishing of advanced visual media
Ponchio F., Potenziani M., Dellepiane M., Callieri M., Scopigno R.
This paper describes the design and development of a service for 'visual media' files. In the first phase of the ARIADNE project we reviewed the status of visual media resources (2D, RTI, 3D) in the archaeology domain, but there was possibility of publishing visual media resources on the web. To fill this gap we have designed a service aimed at providing easy and unsupervised publication on the web. The service provides a very easy interface (a simple web form) that allows the user to upload the visual media file; the data is then transformed in a web-compliant format, supporting multi-resolution encoding, compression, and progressive transmission. At the end of the data-processing phase the user receives an email containing the URL of the published asset (or, in case he/she wants to store the file locally, a .zip file). Specific browsers for the three types of media have also been developed, based on 3DHOP technology.Source: CAA 2015 - 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, pp. 433–442, Siena, Italy, 31 March - 2 April 2015

See at: archaeopress.com Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2016 Conference article Restricted

Automating large 3D dataset publication in a web-based multimedia repository
Potenziani M., Fritsch B., Dellepiane M., Scopigno R.
Online publishing of almost every type of 3D data has become a quasi-standard routine. Nevertheless, the integration in a web page of a single 3D model, or of a predefined restricted set of models, raises different issues compared to an efficient and effective integration of thousands of them in an online repository. In this case it is mandatory to have an automatized pipeline to prepare and homogenize the dataset. The pipeline should be able to automatically wrap 3D data in all conditions, and display every single model with the best scene setup without any (or with a minimal) interaction by the database maintainers. This paper, retracing the steps of a recent real application case, aims at showing all the faced issues (and the adopted solutions) to publish a large and heterogeneous three-dimensional dataset in a web specialized repository. We want to introduce a valid and reusable strategy, starting from the description of the pipeline adopted for data pre-processing and moving to the choices made in the 3D viewer implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on the actual state of the integration of 3D data with the other multimedia informative layers.Source: Smart Tools and Apps in computer Graphics, Genova, Italy, 3-4 October 2016
Project(s): ARIADNE via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN

3DHOP: 3D heritage online presenter
Potenziani M., Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Corsini M., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
3D Heritage Online Presenter (3DHOP) is a framework for the creation of advanced web-based visual presentations of high-resolution 3D content 3DHOP has been designed to cope with the specific needs of the Cultural Heritage (CH) field. By using multiresolution encoding, it is able to efficiently stream high-resolution 3D models (such as the sampled models usually employed in CH applications); it provides a series of ready-to-use templates and examples tailored for the presentation of CH artifacts; it interconnects the 3D visualization with the rest of the webpage DOM, making it possible to create integrated presentations schemes (3D + multimedia). In its design and development, we paid particular attention to three factors: easiness of use, smooth learning curve and performances. Thanks to its modular nature and a declarative-like setup, it is easy to learn, configure, and customize at different levels, depending on the programming skills of the user. This allows people with different background to always obtain the required power and flexibility from the framework. 3DHOP is written in JavaScript and it is based on the SpiderGL library, which employs the WebGL subset of HTML5, implementing plugin-free 3D rendering on many web browsers. In this paper we present the capabilities and characteristics of the 3DHOP framework, using different examples based on concrete projects.Source: Computers & graphics 52 (2015): 129–141. doi:10.1016/j.cag.2015.07.001
DOI: 10.1016/j.cag.2015.07.001
Project(s): ARIADNE via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted | Computers & Graphics Restricted


2015 Software Unknown

3D Heritage online presenter
Callieri M., Potenziani M., Dellepiane M., Corsini M., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
3D Heritage Online Presenter (3DHOP) is a framework for the creation of advanced web-based visual presentations of high-resolution 3D content. 3DHOP has been designed to cope with the specific needs of the Cultural Heritage (CH) field. By using multiresolution encoding, it is able to efficiently stream high-resolution 3D models (such as the sampled models usually employed in CH applications); it provides a series of ready-to-use templates and examples tailored for the presentation of CH artifacts; it interconnects the 3D visualization with the rest of the webpage DOM, making it possible to create integrated presentations schemes (3D + multimedia). Thanks to its modular nature and a declarative-like setup, it is easy to learn, configure, and customize at different levels, depending on the programming skills of the user. This allows people with different background to always obtain the required power and flexibility from the framework. 3DHOP is written in JavaScript and it is based on the SpiderGL library, which employs the WebGL subset of HTML5, implementing plugin-free 3D rendering on many web browsers.Project(s): ARIADNE via OpenAIRE

See at: 3dhop.net | CNR ExploRA


2015 Conference article Restricted

Alchemy in 3D: a digitization for a journey through matter
Callieri M., Pingi P., Potenziani M., Dellepiane M., Pavoni G., Lureau A., Scopigno R.
In this work, we will present the outcomes of the 3D diagnostic investigations carried out on the painting Alchemy by Jackson Pollock. Thanks to an accurate digitization and a careful processing, we were able to generate a very precise high-resolution 3D model that proved to be useful in different stages of the diagnostic and conservation campaign. The 3D model was integrated in the conservation process, along with the other diagnostic investigations; the geometric data was also used to produce images and video sequences for dissemination purposes. The most interesting aspect of the work, however, was the idea of going beyond photo-realism and the use of the scanner-measured geometry to try to interpret and understand the traces and signs on the surface of the painting, in relation with the gestures and techniques used by Pollock while painting this masterpiece. Combining the knowledge of the curators and the metric data gathered in the digitization, we were able to discover and validate several interesting aspects of the painting, in the direction of trying to better understanding the painting process which was, in the idea of the artist, an essential part of the artwork. The 3D model of the artwork played a central role also in the temporary exhibition created for the dissemination of the conservation and the diagnostic campaign to the museum visitors. This was also done following the idea of using the geometry to explain the gestures, actions and techniques of Jackson Pollock at work. The 3D model was used to create an interactive kiosk, to have the visitors navigate the model and access explanations of relevant geometrical details and to produce a 1:1 physical reproduction to give the public the possibility to physically interact with the artwork.Source: International Congress on Digital Heritage, pp. 223–231, Granada, Spain, 28/08/2015-02/10/2015
DOI: 10.1109/digitalheritage.2015.7413875

See at: academic.microsoft.com Restricted | diglib.eg.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2015 Conference article Restricted

Digital Study and Web-based Documentation of the Colour and Gilding on Ancient Marble Artworks
Siotto E., Palma G., Potenziani M., Scopigno R.
Greek and Roman marble artworks have been deeply studied from a typological and stylistic point of view, while there is still a limited knowledge on the pigments, dyes, binders and technical expedients used by Roman artists. In a renewed scientific interest towards the ancient polychromy (colour and gilding), a digital methodological and multidisciplinary approach can provide valuable information to better investigate and understand this fundamental aspect and to get a complete sense on Greek and Roman marble artworks. Following this research direction, the paper proposes a systematic methodological process defined to detect, document and visualize the preserved (and in some cases the digital reconstructed) original colour and gilding on Roman marble sarcophagi (II-IV century AD). The process defines a working pipeline that, starting from the selection of the artefact to study, proposes a set of investigation steps to improve our knowledge of its original painting. These steps include the direct virtual inspection, the archaeological and historical research, the on-site scientific investigation by multispectral imaging, spectroscopic and elemental analysis (eventually supported by micro-invasive techniques performed in laboratory), the accurate polychrome surface acquisition by colour calibrated 2D images. All the data produced are integrated with a high-resolution 3D model to support enhanced analysis and comparison and to create a digital 3D polychrome reconstruction by virtual painting. Finally, all those data are also made accessible on the web by using a cutting edge platform for visual media publication and interactive 3D visualization. This systematic and multidisciplinary process was tested on the so-called 'Annona sarcophagus' (Museo Nazionale Romano - Palazzo Massimo, inv. no. 40799).Source: Digital Heritage International Congress, pp. 239–246, Granada, 28/09/2015-02/10/2015
DOI: 10.1109/digitalheritage.2015.7413877
Project(s): ARIADNE via OpenAIRE

See at: academic.microsoft.com Restricted | diglib.eg.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | vcg.isti.cnr.it Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2015 Journal article Open Access OPEN

3DHOP una piattaforma flessibile per la pubblicazione e visualizzazione su Web dei risultati di digitalizzazioni 3D
Potenziani M., Callieri M., Dellepiane M., Corsini M., Ponchio F., Scopigno R.
3DHOP (3D Heritage Online Presenter) is an innovative technological solution for the advanced presentation of high-resolution 3D content on the Web. The design of this tool has been focused towards the Cultural Heritage (CH) field, even though its versatility makes it a general-purpose instrument. 3DHOP is particularly suitable for the online presentation of CH artifacts due to its main features: the capability to efficiently stream high-resolution 3D models (as the ones coming from 3D scanning which are usually employed in CH); the possibility to build integrated presentations schemes by interconnecting the viewer to the rest of web pages elements; and, finally, the ready-to-use templates and examples of configuration focused towards CH applications. In its design and development, we put particular attention on three factors: easiness of use, smooth learning curve and performances. 3DHOP is written in JavaScript and it uses the WebGL subset of HTML5 for efficient rendering. Thanks to its modular nature, and a declarative-like setup, it is easy to learn and may be configured and customized at different levels, making it accessible for people without skilled knowledge in Computer Graphics (CG) programming. In this paper we present capabilities and characteristics of the third release of this tool, using some examples based on real-world projects.Source: Archeomatica (Roma) 6 (2015): 6–11. doi:10.48258/arc.v6i4.1216
DOI: 10.48258/arc.v6i4.1216

See at: issuu.com Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2014 Conference article Open Access OPEN

An advanced solution for publishing 3D content on the Web
Potenziani M., Corsini M., Callieri M., Di Benedetto M., Ponchio F., Dellepiane M., Scopigno R.
The deployment of 3D content on the Web gained momentum in many contexts. The Cultural Heritage field is a good example, since 3D data need to be published on the Web for many different purposes (presenting museum collections, displaying virtual reconstruction of ancient sites, showing connections between artefacts of interest, etc.); moreover, 3D data are often paired by other multimedia information and, finally, solutions should be cheap and high-fidelity. The current approach for developing 3D graphics applications on the web is to employ WebGL, a graphics javascript API that is embedded in modern web browsers. WebGL was derived from the standard OpenGL graphics library and it has been recently adopted by all the major web browsers. Thanks to this, people that access a web site based on WebGL do not need to install any additional plugins or other applications to use the interactive 3D content of the web page. The main problem related with the use of WebGL is the substantial technical skills the developers should master (such as web design, Javascript programming and knowledge of Computer Graphics) in order to implement an application. We present 3DHop (3D Heritage Online Presenter), an advance technological solution that allows people without high/mid level programming skills to be able to publish 3D content on the Web in several forms. This technology consists in a set of components and templates for the online visualization that have in common the characteristics to be easily modifiable with a minimal effort to obtain the desired final effect. This technology has been developed in the context of a few EU projects and it has been already used in Virtual Museums projects. 3DHop is now reaching its maturity and becomes a solid tool open to the Cultural Heritage community, reducing the learning curve and speeding up the implementation of virtual museums and of on-line interactive presentations. From a technical point of view, 3DHop is based on SpiderGL, a support library built on top of WebGL and developed by CNR-ISTI. A brief overview of this library will also be given in the presentation.Source: MWF 2014 - Museums and the Web Florence 2014, Florence, Italy, 18-21 February 2014
Project(s): V-MUST.NET via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access


2014 Journal article Open Access OPEN

3DHOP: a novel technological solution for the development of online virtual museums
Potenziani M., Callieri M., Scopigno R.
The interactive visualization of 3D content on the Web has gained momentum in recent years, thanks to the release of ad-hoc technology as part of HTML5. However, so far, few products fully exploit this opportunity for the easy and quick embedding of high-resolution 3D models in a Web page. 3DHOP (3D Heritage Online Presenter) is an advanced solution for easy publishing of 3D content on the Web.Source: ERCIM news online edition 97 (2014): 52–53.

See at: ercim-news.ercim.eu Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access