An environment to collect personal memories of older adults and use them to personalise serious games with humanoid robots Catricalà B., Ledda M., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C., Zedda E. One of the goals of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions is to be able to stimulate the cognitive resources of older adults. An innovative way to address such stimulation is the use of serious games delivered through humanoid robots, as they can provide an engaging way to perform exercises useful for training human memory, attention, processing, and planning activities. This paper presents an approach to supporting cognitive stimulation based on personal memories. The humanoid robot can exhibit different behaviours using various modalities, and propose the games in a way personalised to specific individuals' requirements, preferences, abilities, and motivations, which can vary among older adults, and even dynamically evolve over time for the same person depending on changing user needs and health conditions. Using personal memories associated with facts and events that
occurred in older adults life in the serious games can increase their engagement, and thus potentially reduce the cognitive training drop-out.Source: ALTRUIST 2022 - 2nd Workshop on sociAL roboTs for peRsonalized, continUous and adaptIve aSsisTance, pp. 44–54, Florence, Italy, 16/12/2022
An adaptive behaviour-based strategy for SARs interacting with older adults with MCI during a serious game scenario Zedda E., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. The monotonous nature of repetitive cognitive training may cause losing interest in it and dropping out by older adults. This study introduces an adaptive technique that enables a Socially Assistive Robot (SAR) to select the most appropriate actions to maintain the engagement level of older adults while they play the serious game in cognitive training. The goal is to develop an adaptation strategy for changing the robot's behaviour that uses reinforcement learning to encourage the user to remain engaged. A reinforcement learning algorithm was implemented to determine the most effective adaptation strategy for the robot's actions, encompassing verbal and nonverbal interactions. The simulation results demonstrate that the learning algorithm achieved convergence and offers promising evidence to validate the strategy's effectiveness.Source: CHI2023 SARs: TMI - 2023: Socially Assistive Robots as Decision Makers: Transparency, Motivations, and Intentions, Hamburg, Germany, 28/04/2023 DOI: 10.48550/arxiv.2305.01492 Metrics:
Biography-based robot games for older adults Catricalà B., Ledda M., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C., Zedda E. One issue in aging is how to stimulate the cognitive skills of older adults. One way to address it is the use of serious games delivered through humanoid robots, to provide engaging ways to perform exercises to train memory, attention, processing, and planning activities. We present an approach in which a humanoid robot, by using various modalities, propose the games in a way personalised to specific individuals' experiences using their personal memories associated with facts and events that occurred in older adults' life. This personalization can increase their interest and engagement, and thus potentially reduce the cognitive training drop-out.Source: CHI2023 SARs: TMI - 2023: Socially Assistive Robots as Decision Makers: Transparency, Motivations, and Intentions, Hamburg, Germany, 28/04/2023 DOI: 10.48550/arxiv.2305.19849 Metrics:
Personalisation of humanoid robots: serious games for older adults based on biographical memories Catricalà B., Manca M., Paterno F., Santoro C., Zedda E. We present an approach to novel digital cognitive training through serious games able to adapt to personally relevant material from the older adult's life. The games are based on memories associated with the older adult's biography, thus making interactions personalised, relevant, and more engaging. The serious games are accessed through humanoid robots, which can make the training exercise more engaging because of their human-like behaviour.Source: ERCIM news 132 (2023): 28–29.
THE D.3.2.1 - AA@THE User needs, technical requirements and specifications Pratali L., Campana M. G., Delmastro F., Di Martino F., Pescosolido L., Barsocchi P., Broccia G., Ciancia V., Gennaro C., Girolami M., Lagani G., La Rosa D., Latella D., Magrini M., Manca M., Massink M., Mattioli A., Moroni D., Palumbo F., Paradisi P., Paternò F., Santoro C., Sebastiani L., Vairo C. Deliverable D3.2.1 del progetto PNRR Ecosistemi ed innovazione - THESource: ISTI Project Report, THE, D3.2, 2023
MCI older adults' user experience with introverted and extraverted humanoid robot personalities Zedda E., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. This study aimed to investigate the impact of different personalities in humanoid robots for cognitive training scenarios with older
adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In particular, we have designed an application with two opposite personalities based on
the Extraversion dimension of the Big Five Factors model. A user test with 16 Italian-speaking participants diagnosed with MCI aged
68+ was performed. The analysis of the data collected suggests that the robot's personality can have an effect on the engagement
of such users and also found that participants can discriminate between the two personalities. Overall, the study highlights the
importance of designing human-robot interactions considering personality-related aspects when considering MCI older adults.Source: CHITALY 2023 - 15th Biannual Conference of the Italian SIGCHI Chapter: Crossing HCI and AI, Turin, Italy, 20-22/09/2023 DOI: 10.1145/3605390.3605405 Metrics:
Understanding concepts, methods and tools for end-user control of automations in ecosystems of smart objects and services Andrao M., Balducci F., Breve B., Cena F., Desolda G., Deufemia V., Gena C., Matera M., Mattioli A., Paternò F., Santoro C., Treccani B., Vernero F., Zancanaro M. The continuously increasing number of connected objects and sensors
is opening up the possibility of introducing automations in many domains to better support people in their activities. However, such automations to be effective
should be under the user control. Unfortunately, people often report difficulties
in understanding the surrounding automations and how to modify them. The goal
of this paper is to provide a multi-perspective view of what has been done in
terms of design, tools, and evaluation in the area of end-user control of automations in ecosystems of smart objects and services. For each aspect we introduce
the main challenge, the current possible approaches to address it, and the issues
that still need further investigation.Source: IS-EUD 2023 - 9th International Symposium on End-User Development, pp. 104–124, Cagliari, Italy, 06-08/06/2023 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-34433-6_7 Metrics:
A web serious game for children with attentive disorders: design and experiences from two trials Angileri L., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. Cognitive developmental disorders are common in children and can affect various abilities. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. This work presents PlayToPickUp, a serious game that aims to stimulate children in relevant cognitive domains (attention and error monitoring).
A multidisciplinary team of experts and caregivers from two different centres that support therapeutic activities with such children participated from the beginning to the design and the evaluation of the game. Depending on the characteristics and abilities of the player, therapists can customise the game to provide training that best fits the skills and the needs of the child while maintaining the player's motivation.
After its development the game was used over two months "in the wild" by children recruited by the two centres. In one case the children played with it within the regular activities offered by the training centre. In the other one, the parents of the children were instructed by caregivers to have the children play the game at home.
In the paper we describe the experience gathered from such two studies run in parallel, discussing the aspects that worked better and those that represented difficulties, and the lesson learnt for future studies.Source: Human-computer interaction (2023). doi:10.1080/07370024.2023.2240797 DOI: 10.1080/07370024.2023.2240797 Metrics:
Large scale automatic web accessibility validation Iannuzzi N., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. Digital accessibility is considered an important aspect to allow all people, including those with permanent or temporary disabilities, to access the continuously increasing number of digital services. This raises the need for tools able to provide support for monitoring the level of accessibility of a large number of websites in order to understand their actual level of accessibility, and identify the areas that need more interventions for their improvement. We present how we have extended a tool for accessibility validation for this purpose, and the results that we obtained in the validation of about 2.7 million Web pages of Italian public administration Web sites.Source: GoodIT 2023 - 3rd ACM International Conference on Information Technology for Social Good, pp. 307–314, Lisbon, Portugal, 06-08/09/2023 DOI: 10.1145/3582515 Metrics:
Older adults' user experience with introvert and extravert humanoid robot personalities Zedda E., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. Humanoid robots can be an effective tool for the cognitive training of older adults. For this purpose, it is important that their interaction be engaging. In this study, we investigate whether proposing robots exhibiting extraverted or introverted personalities can improve user experience. In particular, we have designed and implemented a set of multi-modal cues for such personality traits, which have been exploited in an application proposing typical exercises for cognitive training through a Pepper robot. We report on a user test with 24 older adults (65 +), which provided interesting and positive feedback regarding how the robot personalities have been exhibited and their impact on the experience of such users.Source: Universal access in the information society (Internet) (2023). doi:10.1007/s10209-023-01054-2 DOI: 10.1007/s10209-023-01054-2 Metrics:
Smartphone-based augmented reality for end-user creation of home automations Ariano R., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. In the last few years, several end-user tools have been designed to help people who are not professional developers in programming their smart environments. However, such tools are often based on structured visual editors providing abstract representations of the available connected sensors and objects, which can be problematic for end users, and do not particularly encourage their participation. This work aims to make the end-user experience of creating everyday automations involving various types of connected sensors and objects more engaging by replacing extensive, static, structured and comprehensive abstract visual tools with more narrowed, relevant, context-sensitive, dynamic, augmented reality-based representations. We present a solution for this purpose that mobile users can exploit through their smartphone. End users can use the smartphone camera to frame the relevant sensor or object through the developed prototype, then get the current automations associated with it, edit their definition, create new ones as well as monitor the automations involving the whole current environment. We also report a first user test of the developed prototype deployed in a home equipped with connected sensors and objects, which yielded positive feedback.Source: Behaviour & information technology (Online) (2022). doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.2017482 DOI: 10.1080/0144929x.2021.2017482 Metrics:
An approach to exploiting personal memories in humanoid robots serious games for cognitive stimulation of older adults Catricalà B., Coffaro D., Manca M., Mattioli A., Paternò F., Santoro C. One of the goals of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions is to be able to stimulate the cognitive resources of older adults. An innovative way to address such stimulation is the use of serious games delivered through humanoid robots. Such devices are based on Internet of Things technologies since they are collections of sensors and actuators in a human shape. Serious games delivered through humanoid robots can provide an engaging way to perform exercises useful for training human memory, attention, processing, and planning activities. This paper presents an approach to supporting cognitive stimulation based on personal memories. The humanoid robot can exhibit different behaviours through different modalities, and propose the games in a way personalized to specific individuals' requirements, preferences, abilities, and motivations, which can vary among older adults, and even dynamically evolve over time for the same person depending on changing user needs and health conditions.Source: EMPATHY 2022 - 3rd International Workshop on Empowering People in Dealing with Internet of Things Ecosystems, Frascati, 06-10/06/2022
End-user development in industrial contexts: the paper mill case study Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. This work aims to explore the potentialities of an end-user personalisation platform in industrial settings. In such a context, stakeholders with different roles and competencies collaborate to manage and control an environment where legacy machines coexist and interact with newer ones. Our goal is to provide a rule-based tool that allows end-users to build personalised solutions to respond quickly to the dynamic needs of factories. We report on a case study in the paper factory domain, in which the industrial aspects identified with expert stakeholders through interviews have been simulated and addressed through an extension of a personalisation platform. A first user test of the resulting environment has been carried out with a representative set of users, and has provided useful and encouraging feedback in terms of the potentialities of the proposed approach in industrial contexts.Source: Behaviour & information technology (Online) (2022). doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2089597 DOI: 10.1080/0144929x.2022.2089597 Metrics:
Towards understanding the transparency of automations in daily environments Paternò F., Gallo S., Manca M., Mattioli A., Santoro C. This paper outlines a proposal for how to address transparency of automations in daily environments, such as smart homes, based on experiences carried out in previous projects. The trigger-action programming paradigm has been used to describe and implement such automations in both commercial and research tools. Such automations can be generated through machine learning techniques or directly by the end users or through an interaction between an intelligent agent and the user. When they are executed the resulting behaviour does not always result in the desired actions, and users may have difficulties in understanding and controlling them. Thus, there is a need for design criteria and associated tools that help people to understand and control what happens with the automations active in the environments where they live, and explain how they work and can be modified to better meet their needs.Source: IUI-WS 2022 - Workshops at the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) 2022, pp. 187–191, Helsinki, Finland, 21-22/03/2022
PlayToPickup: customisable serious games for children with cognitive disorders Angileri L., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. Cognitive developmental disorders are common in children and affect the language or attention area, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity. In these cases, the individual is unable to engage and interact effectively with the environment, resulting in difficulties in learning and autonomously carrying out daily activities. For these reasons, this work proposes a solution that aims to stimulate children in the relevant cognitive aspects, which are attention, planning tasks and error monitoring. The proposed solution is PlayToPickUp, a serious game that supports tasks that replicate the activities of daily life, such as preparing the backpack, recognising money or emotions.Source: ERCIM news 130 (2022): 22–23.
The transparency of automatic web accessibility evaluation tools: design criteria, state of the art, and user perception Manca M., Palumbo V., Paternò F., Santoro C. Several Web accessibility evaluation tools have been put forward to reduce the burden of identifying accessibility barriers for users, especially those with disabilities. One common issue in using accessibility evaluation tools in practice is that the results provided by different tools are sometimes unclear, and often diverging. Such limitations may confuse the users who may not understand the reasons behind them, and thus hamper the possible adoption of such tools. Hence, there is a need for tools that shed light on their actual functioning, and the success criteria and techniques supported. For this purpose, we must identify what criteria should be adopted in order for such tools to be transparent and to help users better interpret their results. In this paper, we discuss such issues, provide design criteria for obtaining user-centred and transparent accessibility evaluation tools, and analyse how they have been addressed by a representative set of open, license-free, accessibility tools. We also report on the results of a survey with 138 users of such tools, aimed at capturing the perceived usefulness of previously identified transparency requirements. Finally, we performed a user study with 18 users working in the Web design or accessibility fields with the goal of receiving more feedback about the transparency of a selected subset of accessibility tools.Source: ACM transactions on accessible computing (2022). doi:10.1145/3556979 DOI: 10.1145/3556979 Metrics:
Biography-based games for cognitive stimulation of older adults Catricalà B., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. Currently, cognitive stimulation exercises conducted with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)-affected older adults are typically administered by care professionals through exercises, which require a high degree of involvement by professional therapists, and are often perceived as tedious by the older adults. We aim to offer novel digital training through serious games designed using personally relevant material from the older adults' life. They will be based on memories associated with their biography, thus making interactions personalised, relevant, and more engaging. The serious games can be accessed through humanoid robots, which can make the training exercise more engaging because of their human-like behaviour. In this paper we discuss our approach to biography-based games for older adultsSource: CROA 2022 - The First Workshop on Care Robots for Older Adults, Naples, Italy, 29/08-2/09/2022
Usability and transparency in the design of a tool for automatic support for web accessibility validation Iannuzzi N., Manca M., Paternò F., Santoro C. The importance of guaranteeing accessible Web applications is becoming widely recognised, and supported by national and international legislation. This implies an increasing need for large scale validations, which can be achieved only through automatic support. Thus, there is a need for a new generation of accessibility validation tools able to check against the continuously evolving guidelines and report any issues revealed, considering that their results will be used by many people with varied backgrounds and goals. Such tools should be able to support monitoring of Web sites' accessibility, provide user-friendly information suitable for various purposes, and be transparent in terms of what they are actually able to evaluate in order to elicit the right expectations from their users. They should also consider how the technologies for implementing Web sites have evolved in recent years. In this paper, we provide a description of the requirements and design dimensions that characterise such tools in order to address emerging needs, providing indications on whether and how several existing validation tools support them, and present how we have addressed and implemented them in a specific tool. We also report on a first usability test of such tool, which has provided encouraging feedback.Source: Universal access in the information society (Internet) (2022). doi:10.1007/s10209-022-00948-x DOI: 10.1007/s10209-022-00948-x Metrics: