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2021 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Analysis of diagnostic images of artworks and feature extraction: design of a methodology
Amura A., Aldini A., Pagnotta S., Salerno E., Tonazzini A., Triolo P.
Digital images represent the primary tool for diagnostics and documentation of the state of preservation of artifacts. Today the interpretive filters that allow one to characterize information and communicate it are extremely subjective. Our research goal is to study a quantitative analysis methodology to facilitate and semi-automate the recognition and polygonization of areas corresponding to the characteristics searched. To this end, several algorithms have been tested that allow for separating the characteristics and creating binary masks to be statistically analyzed and polygonized. Since our methodology aims to offer a conservator-restorer model to obtain useful graphic documentation in a short time that is usable for design and statistical purposes, this process has been implemented in a single Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application.Source: JOURNAL OF IMAGING 7 (2021). doi:10.3390/jimaging7030053
DOI: 10.3390/jimaging7030053

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | DOAJ-Articles Open Access | Journal of Imaging Open Access


2021 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Integration of multiple resolution data in 3D chromatin reconstruction using ChromStruct
Caudai C., Zoppè M., Tonazzini A., Merelli I., Salerno E.
The three-dimensional structure of chromatin in the cellular nucleus carries important information that is connected to physiological and pathological correlates and dysfunctional cell behaviour. As direct observation is not feasible at present, on one side, several experimental techniques have been developed to provide information on the spatial organization of the DNA in the cell; on the other side, several computational methods have been developed to elaborate experimental data and infer 3D chromatin conformations. The most relevant experimental methods are Chromosome Conformation Capture and its derivatives, chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing techniques (CHIP-seq), RNA-seq, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and other genetic and biochemical techniques. All of them provide important and complementary information that relate to the three-dimensional organization of chromatin. However, these techniques employ very different experimental protocols and provide information that is not easily integrated, due to different contexts and different resolutions. Here, we present an open-source tool, which is an expansion of the previously reported code ChromStruct, for inferring the 3D structure of chromatin that, by exploiting a multilevel approach, allows an easy integration of information derived from different experimental protocols and referred to different resolution levels of the structure, from a few kilobases up to Megabases. Our results show that the introduction of chromatin modelling features related to CTCF CHIA-PET data, histone modification CHIP-seq, and RNA-seq data produce appreciable improvements in ChromStruct's 3D reconstructions, compared to the use of HI-C data alone, at a local level and at a very high resolution.Source: Biology (Basel) 10 (2021): 338. doi:10.3390/biology10040338
DOI: 10.3390/biology10040338

See at: Europe PubMed Central Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.mdpi.com Open Access | Biology Open Access


2021 Report Open Access OPEN

SI-Lab Annual Research Report 2020
Leone G. R., Righi M., Carboni A., Caudai C., Colantonio S., Kuruoglu E. E., Leporini B., Magrini M., Paradisi P., Pascali M. A., Pieri G., Reggiannini M., Salerno E., Scozzari A., Tonazzini A., Fusco G., Galesi G., Martinelli M., Pardini F., Tampucci M., Buongiorno R., Bruno A., Germanese D., Matarese F., Coscetti S., Coltelli P., Jalil B., Benassi A., Bertini G., Salvetti O., Moroni D.
The Signal & Images Laboratory (http://si.isti.cnr.it/) is an interdisciplinary research group in computer vision, signal analysis, smart vision systems and multimedia data understanding. It is part of the Institute for Information Science and Technologies of the National Research Council of Italy. This report accounts for the research activities of the Signal and Images Laboratory of the Institute of Information Science and Technologies during the year 2020.Source: ISTI Technical Report, ISTI-2021-TR/009, pp.1–38, 2021
DOI: 10.32079/isti-tr-2021/009

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2020 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Color segmentation and neural networks for automatic graphic relief of the state of conservation of artworks
Amura A., Tonazzini A., Salerno E., Pagnotta S., Palleschi V.
This paper proposes a semi-automated methodology based on a sequence of analysis processes performed on multispectral images of artworks and aimed at the extraction of vector maps regarding their state of conservation. The graphic relief of the artwork represents the main instrument of communication and synthesis of information and data acquired on cultural heritage during restoration. Despite the widespread use of informatics tools, currently, these operations are still extremely subjective and require high execution times and costs. In some cases, manual execution is particularly complicated and almost impossible to carry out. The methodology proposed here allows supervised, partial automation of these procedures avoids approximations and drastically reduces the work times, as it makes a vector drawing by extracting the areas directly from the raster images. We propose a procedure for color segmentation based on principal/independent component analysis (PCA/ICA) and SOM neural networks and, as a case study, present the results obtained on a set of multispectral reproductions of a painting on canvas.Source: Cultura e scienza del colore 12 (2020): 7–15. doi:10.23738/CCSJ.120201
DOI: 10.23738/ccsj.120201

See at: jcolore.gruppodelcolore.it Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Digital safeguard of laminated historical manuscripts: the treatise "Poem in Rajaz on medicine" as a case study
Del Grosso A. M., Fassi Fihri D., El Mohajir M., Nahli O., Tonazzini A.
In this paper, we analyze and discuss the characteristics of a system for the effective digital preservation and fruition of historical manuscripts degraded by the process of lamination. As a case study, we will make reference to the "Poem in Rajaz on medicine", written by Abubacer in the XII century, and conserved in the Al Quaraouiyine Library located in Fez, Morocco. The conceived system should have at least four main functionalities: image acquisition (i.e. digitization), image enhancement, text encoding, and linguistic analysis. Based on the evaluation of the manuscript damages, the acquisition set up should be designed in such a way to be able to avoid reflections as much as possible. Suitable digital image processing techniques should also be devised to correct the residual degradations and enhance the text for an easier legibility. Finally, semi-automatic transcription, scholarly encoding and linguistic analysis, to be performed on the virtually restored pages, should adapt existing tools to the specificity of the primary source writing system and language. The feasibility study for the realization of such a system is of general utility, in that it can provide guidelines for the digitization, the enhancement and the text encoding of the many laminated manuscripts conserved in other historical archives. On the other hand, from the cultural heritage point of view, the experimentation on the "Poem in Rajaz on medicine" could foster the systematic philological and ontological study of a unique piece of our documental heritage: the longest poem of medieval Islamic medical literature.Source: CiSt'2020 - 6th IEEE Congress on Information Science & Technology, Agadir-Essaouira, Morocco, June 5-12, 2021

See at: CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.ieee.ma Open Access


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Estimation of the spatial chromatin structure based on a multiresolution bead-chain model
Caudai C., Salerno E., Zoppe M., Tonazzini A.
We present a method to infer 3D chromatin configurations from Chromosome Conformation Capture data. Quite a few methods have been proposed to estimate the structure of the nuclear DNA in homogeneous populations of cells from this kind of data. Many of them transform contact frequencies into Euclidean distances between pairs of chromatin fragments, and then reconstruct the structure by solving a distance-to-geometry problem. To avoid inconsistencies, our method is based on a score function that does not require any frequency-to-distance translation. We propose a multiscale chromatin model where the chromatin fibre is suitably partitioned at each scale. The partial structures are estimated independently, and connected to rebuild the whole fibre. Our score function consists in a data-fit part and a penalty part, balanced automatically at each scale and each subchain. The penalty part enforces "soft" geometric constraints. As many different structures can fit the data, our sampling strategy produces a set of solutions with similar scores. The procedure contains a few parameters, independent of both the scale and the genomic segment treated. The partition of the fibre, along with intrinsically parallel parts, make this method computationally efficient. Results from human genome data support the biological plausibility of our solutions.Source: IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics (Print) 16 (2019): 550–559. doi:10.1109/TCBB.2018.2791439
DOI: 10.1109/tcbb.2018.2791439

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

ChromStruct 4: a Python code to estimate the chromatin structure from Hi-C data
Caudai C., Salerno E., Zoppè M., Merelli I., Tonazzini A.
A method and a stand-alone Python(TM) code to estimate the 3D chromatin structure from chromosome conformation capture data are presented. The method is based on a multiresolution, modified-bead-chain chromatin model, evolved through quaternion operators in a Monte Carlo sampling. The solution space to be sampled is generated by a score function with a data-fit part and a constraint part where the available prior knowledge is implicitly coded. The final solution is a set of 3D configurations that are compatible with both the data and the prior knowledge. The iterative code, provided here as additional material, is equipped with a graphical user interface and stores its results in standard-format files for 3D visualization. We describe the mathematical-computational aspects of the method and explain the details of the code. Some experimental results are reported, with a demonstration of their fit to the data.Source: IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics (Online) 16 (2019): 1867–1878. doi:10.1109/TCBB.2018.2838669
DOI: 10.1109/tcbb.2018.2838669

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

A new infrared true-color approach for visible-infrared multispectral image analysis
Grifoni E., Campanella B., Legnaioli S., Lorenzetti G., Marras L., Pagnotta S., Palleschi V., Poggialini F., Salerno E., Tonazzini A.
In this article, we present a newmethod for the analysis of visible/Infraredmultispectral sets producing chromatically faithful false-color images, whichmaintain a good readability of the information contained in the non-visible Infrared band. Examples of the application of this technique are given on the multispectral images acquired on the Pietà of Santa Croce of Agnolo Bronzino (1569, Florence) and on the analysis and visualization of the multispectral data obtained on Etruscanmural paintings (Tomb of the Monkey, Siena, Italy, V century B.C.). The fidelity of the chromatic appearance of the resulting images, coupled to the effective visualization of the information contained in the Infrared band, opens interesting perspectives for the use of the method for visualization and presentation of the results of multispectral analysis in Cultural Heritage diffusion, research, and diagnostics.Source: ACM journal on computing and cultural heritage (Print) 12 (2019): 8:1–8:11. doi:10.1145/3241065
DOI: 10.1145/3241065

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage Restricted | dl.acm.org Restricted | Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage Restricted | Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Analytical and mathematical methods for revealing hidden details in ancient manuscripts and paintings: A review
Tonazzini A., Salerno E., Abdel-salam Z. A., Harith M. A., Marras L., Botto A., Campanella B., Legnaioli S., Pagnotta S., Poggialini F., Palleschi V.
In this work, a critical review of the current nondestructive probing and image analysis approaches is presented, to revealing otherwise invisible or hardly discernible details in manuscripts and paintings relevant to cultural heritage and archaeology. Multispectral imaging, X-ray fluorescence, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermography are considered, as techniques for acquiring images and spectral image sets; statistical methods for the analysis of these images are then discussed, including blind separation and false colour techniques. Several case studies are presented, with particular attention dedicated to the approaches that appear most promising for future applications. Some of the techniques described herein are likely to replace, in the near future, classical digital photography in the study of ancient manuscripts and paintings. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.Source: Journal of Advanced Research (Print) (Print) 17 (2019): 31–42. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2019.01.003
DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2019.01.003

See at: Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | europepmc.org Open Access | Europe PubMed Central Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access | Journal of Advanced Research Open Access


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Virtual restoration and content analysis of ancient degraded manuscripts
Tonazzini A., Savino P., Salerno E., Hanif M., Debole F.
In recent years, extensive campaigns of digitization of the documental heritage conserved in libraries and archives have been performed, with the primary goal to ensure the preservation and fruition of this important part of the human cultural and historical patrimony. Besides protecting conservation, the availability of high quality digital copies has increasingly stimulated the use of image processing techniques, to perform a number of operations on documents and manuscripts, without harming the often precious and fragile originals. Among those, virtual restoration tasks are crucial, as they facilitate the traditional work of philologists and paleographers, and constitute a first step towards an automatic analysis of the written contents. Here we report our experience in this field, referring, as a case study, to the problem of removing one of the most frequent and impairing degradations affecting ancient manuscripts, i.e., the bleed-through distortion.We show that techniques of blind source separation are versatile tools to either cancel these unwanted interferences or isolate specific features for content analysis goals. Specialized algorithms, based on recto-verso models and sparse image representation, are then shown to be able to perform a fine and selective removal of the degradation, while preserving the original appearance of the manuscript.Source: International Journal of Information Science and Technology 3 (2019): 16–25.

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.innove.org Open Access


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Color segmentation algorithms to support automatism of graphic documentation in restoration
Amura A., Tonazzini A., Salerno E., Pagnotta S., Palleschi V.
All the disciplines connected to restoration have always shown a deep need to achieve a wide understanding of the object of interest, in order to develop a greater awareness of the actions needed and to perform in the full respect of its features. Diagnostic investigation and graphic design are the main tools the restorer operator uses to turn this dialogue into a process of representation where the design acts like a precise language responsible for synthesizing and plainly describing all the information. Our methodology starts with multispectral imaging coupled with segmentation algorithms for the automatic extraction of regions of interest (ROI) from raster images. Thanks to their different optical behavior, we can isolate different areas of the painting that are attributable to it's executive and restoration history. These areas, each corresponding to specific information, are then used for the representation and description of the edge and the area of the regions, producing outputs with vector attributes derived from the raster images. The methodology described above has been applied on a canvas depicting queen Cleopatra, attributed to Donato Creti. The last restoring intervention executed on the artwork is from 2019, during which the restorers have discovered several pictorial remakes, some executed by the artist himself and others executed after his death by unknown artists or restorers.Source: XV Conferenza del Colore, Macerata, Italy, 5-7 September, 2019

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Bleed-through cancellation in non-rigidly misaligned recto-verso archival manuscripts based on local registration
Savino P., Tonazzini A., Bedini L.
Ancient manuscripts written on both pages of the sheet are frequently affected by ink bleeding from the reverse side. This phenomenon produces a significant degradation of both the foreground text and the general appearance of the manuscript. Effective digital image restoration techniques may require the use of the content of both document sides, thus needing their perfect alignment. Although often available, recto and verso are usually not aligned, either for rigid misalignments occurring during acquisition, or for non-rigid deformations of the sheet. In this paper, we propose a novel method to restore color recto-verso manuscript images in a piecewise manner, without the need of a preliminary, global registration of the two sides. We assume that at the local level any deformation can be approximated by a displacement and subdivide the two images into small patches of same size. For each pair of patches at the same location, their relative shift is estimated by cross-correlation, thus allowing their straightforward alignment. A bleed-through removal algorithm is then applied to the registered patches. By spanning the entire images, this procedure returns free-of-interferences versions of the images in their original acquisition layout. The experiments show that the restoration results so obtained are better than those obtained with the classical approach that first registers the whole recto-verso pair and then performs restoration. Further advantages are a much lower computational cost, the possibility to manage non-global and non-rigid deformations, and the unaltered geometry and color appearance of the two restored images.Source: International journal on document analysis and recognition (Print) 22 (2019): 163–176. doi:10.1007/s10032-019-00323-2
DOI: 10.1007/s10032-019-00323-2

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) Restricted | International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) Restricted | International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) Restricted | link.springer.com Restricted | International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) Restricted | International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

A data model and a cataloguing, storage and retrieval system for ancient document archives
Savino P., Tonazzini A., Debole F.
Digitalization of ancient manuscripts is becoming a common practice in many archives and libraries, mainly for preservation purposes. This opens many new opportunities for the diffusion of these precious cultural assets, since several scholars and researchers, as well as the general public, may access and use them for research purposes, for study, and for general information. This is made possible if the documents, their descriptions, and the result of all processing activities performed on them are acquired at a good quality and can be easily accessed by using simple and powerful retrieval mechanisms. Acquired manuscripts suffer of degradations that may require different types of elaborations on the digital images, to improve their visual quality and legibility, or to discover hidden text that is not visible. Natural Language Processing requires the creation of transcriptions of the text contained in the manuscript, as well as encoding of the document structure and creation of user annotations. This paper presents a document management system and a metadata schema that make possible the storage and content-based retrieval of original documents, elaborations performed to improve their readability, textual transcriptions, and linguistic annotations. The archive will offer the possibility of describing, storing and accessing all the available manuscript versions, document transcriptions and annotations, and to search and retrieve documents based on all this information.Source: International Journal of Information Science and Technology 3 (2019): 6–15.

See at: innove.org Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2018 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Sparse representation based inpainting for the restoration of document images affected by bleed-through
Hanif M., Tonazzini A., Savino P., Salerno E.
Bleed-through is a commonly encountered degradation in ancient printed documents and manuscripts, which severely impair their readability. Digital image restoration techniques can be effective to remove or significantly reduce this degradation. In bleed-through document image restoration the main issue is to identify the bleed-through pixels and replace them with appropriate values, in accordance to their surroundings. In this paper, we propose a two stage method, where a pair of properly registered images of the document recto and verso is first used to locate the bleed-through pixels in each side, and then a sparse representation based image inpainting technique is used to fill-in the bleed-through areas according to the neighbourhood, in such a way to preserve the original appearance of the document. The advantages of the proposed inpainting technique over state-of-the-art methods are illustrated by the improvement in the visual results.Source: Proceedings (MDPI) 2 (2018). doi:10.3390/proceedings2020093
DOI: 10.3390/proceedings2020093

See at: Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access


2018 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Non-local sparse image inpainting for document bleed-through removal
Hanif M., Tonazzini A., Savino P., Salerno E.
Bleed-through is a frequent, pervasive degradation in ancient manuscripts, which is caused by ink seeped from the opposite side of the sheet. Bleed-through, appearing as an extra interfering text, hinders document readability and makes it difficult to decipher the information contents. Digital image restoration techniques have been successfully employed to remove or significantly reduce this distortion. This paper proposes a two-step restoration method for documents affected by bleed-through, exploiting information from the recto and verso images. First, the bleed-through pixels are identified, based on a non-stationary, linear model of the two texts overlapped in the recto-verso pair. In the second step, a dictionary learning-based sparse image inpainting technique, with non-local patch grouping, is used to reconstruct the bleed-through-contaminated image information. An overcomplete sparse dictionary is learned from the bleed-through-free image patches, which is then used to estimate a befitting fill-in for the identified bleed-through pixels. The non-local patch similarity is employed in the sparse reconstruction of each patch, to enforce the local similarity. Thanks to the intrinsic image sparsity and non-local patch similarity, the natural texture of the background is well reproduced in the bleed-through areas, and even a possible overestimation of the bleed through pixels is effectively corrected, so that the original appearance of the document is preserved. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method on the images of a popular database of ancient documents, and the results validate the performance of the proposed method compared to the state of the art.Source: JOURNAL OF IMAGING 4 (2018). doi:10.3390/jimaging4050068
DOI: 10.3390/jimaging4050068

See at: Journal of Imaging Open Access | Journal of Imaging Open Access | Journal of Imaging Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | DOAJ-Articles Open Access | Journal of Imaging Open Access


2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Parallelizable strategy for the estimation of the 3D structure of biological macromolecules
Caudai C., Zoppè M., Salerno E., Merelli I., Tonazzini A.
We present a parallelizzable, multilevel algorithm for the study of three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules, applied to two fundamental topics: the 3D reconstruction of Chromatin and the elaboration of motion of proteins. For Chromatin, starting from contact data obtained through Chromosome Conformation Capture techniques, our method first subdivides the data matrix in biologically relevant blocks, and then treats them separately, at several levels, depending on the initial data resolution. The result is a family of configurations for the entire fiber, each one compatible with both experimental data and prior knowledge about specific genomes. For Proteins, the method is conceived as a solution for the problem of identifying motion and alternative conformations to the deposited structures. The algorithm, using quaternions, processes the main chain and the aminoacid side chains independently; it then exploits a Monte Carlo method for selection of biologically acceptable conformations, based on energy evaluation, and finally returns a family of conformations and of trajectories at single atom resolution.Source: PDP 2018 - 26th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing (PDP), pp. 134–137, Cambridge, UK, 21-23 March 2018
DOI: 10.1109/pdp2018.2018.00026

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Document bleed-through removal using sparse image inpainting
Hanif M., Tonazzini A., Savino P., Salerno E., Tsagkatakis G.
Bleed-through is a pervasive degradation in ancient documents, caused by the ink of the opposite side of the sheet that has seeped through the paper fiber, and appears as an extra, interfering text. Bleed-through severely impairs document readability and makes it difficult to decipher the contents. Digital image restoration techniques have been successfully employed to remove or significantly reduce this distortion. The main theme is to identify the bleedthrough pixels and estimate an appropriate replacement for them, in accordance to their surrounding. This paper proposes a two-step image restoration method, exploiting information from the recto and verso images. First, based on a non-stationary linear model of the two texts overlapped in the recto-verso pair, the bleed-through pixels are identified. In the second step, a sparse representation based image inpainting technique, with a non-negative sparsity constraint, is used to find an appropriate replacement for the bleedthough pixels. Thanks to the power of dictionary learning and sparse image reconstruction methods, the natural texture of the background is well reproduced in the bleed-through areas, and even a their possible overestimation is effectively corrected, so that the original appearance of the document is preserved. The experiments are conducted on the images of a popular database of ancient documents, and the results validate the performance of the proposed method compared to the state of the art.Source: DAS 2018 - 13th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, pp. 281–286, Vienna, Austria, 24-27 April 2018
DOI: 10.1109/das.2018.21

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | doi.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Archiving and retrieving digital elaborations of ancient manuscripts
Savino P., Tonazzini A., Debole F., Salerno E.
Digitalization of ancient manuscripts is becoming a standard in libraries and archives. In many cases, manuscripts suffer of degradations that may require performing different types of elaborations on the digital images, in order to improve their legibility and analyze their contents. Digital archives containing digital images of manuscripts and all the elaborations performed on these images are thus of primary importance for a complete exploitation of all available information regarding the manuscripts themselves. This paper presents a metadata schema suitable for the management of such an archive. The archive will offer the possibility of describing, storing and accessing all the available manuscript versions, and to search them based on their content.Source: CiST 2018 - IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology, pp. 172–177, Marrakech, Marocco, 21-27 October 2018
DOI: 10.1109/cist.2018.8596505

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | doi.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2018 Conference article Open Access OPEN

A first step towards NLP from digitized manuscripts: virtual restoration
Debole F., Hanif M., Salerno E., Savino P., Tonazzini A.
Digitization of the documental heritage conserved in libraries and archives is a common practice, in order to ensure the preservation and fruition of this extended part of the human cultural and historical patrimony. For the most precious, fragile and difficult to read and decipher manuscripts, specialized though portable digitization equipment, such as high resolution multispectral/hyperspectral cameras, is nowadays available. Digitization made it possible the increasingly extensive use of digital image processing techniques, to perform a number of virtual restoration tasks, which constitute a first, often necessary step prior subsequent automatic analysis of the writing contents, with the ultimate goal to perform automatic transcription and/or natural language processing tasks. Here we report our experience in this field, referring, as a case study, to the problem of removing one of the most frequent and impairing degradation affecting many ancient manuscripts, i.e., the bleed-through distortion. In this case, virtual restoration gives also the immediate benefit to facilitate the work of philologists and paleographers interested in examining and transcribing the manuscript in a traditional way.Source: CiST 2018 - IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology, pp. 188–193, Marrakech, Marocco, 21-27 October 2018
DOI: 10.1109/cist.2018.8596494

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2017 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

3D Chromatin structure estimation from chromosome conformation capture data
Caudai C., Salerno E., Zoppè M., Tonazzini A.
In this communication we describe ChromStruct4, a method to reconstruct a set of plausible chromatin configurations starting from contact data obtained through Chromosome Conformation Capture techniques. Chromating fibre is modeled as a kinematic chain made of consecutive and partially penetrable beads whose properties (bead size, elasticity, curvature, etc.) can be suitably constrained. The chain can be divided in segments corresonding to Topological Association Domains. We do not search for a unique consensus configuration, because the experimental data are not derived from a single cell, but from millions of cells. We use a coarse-grained recoursive approach, based on a Simulated Annealing algorithm in order to sample the solution space. As opposed to most popular methods, we do not translate contact frequencies deterministically into distances, since this often produces structures that are not consistent with the Euclidean geometry, but adopt the assumption that loci with very high contact frequencies are actually close, but loci with low contact frequencies are not necessarily far away. ChromStruct4 is tested against real Hi-C data and compared with other methods for the 3-dimesional reconstruction fo Chromatin structure starting from Chromosome Conformation Capture data.Source: BITS 2017 - 14th Annual Meeting of the Bioinformatics Italian Society, Cagliari, Italy, 5-7 July 2017

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access