Journal article  Open Access

Efficient adaptive ensembling for image classification

Bruno A., Moroni D., Martinelli M.

Deep Learning  Ensemble  Convolutional Neural Networks  EfficientNet  Image Classification 

In recent times, except for sporadic cases, the trend in Computer Vision is to achieve minor improvements over considerable increases in complexity. To reverse this tendency, we propose a novel method to boost image classification performances without an increase in complexity. To this end, we revisited ensembling, a powerful approach, not often adequately used due to its nature of increased complexity and training time, making it viable by specific design choices. First, we trained end-to-end two EfficientNet-b0 models (known to be the architecture with the best overall accuracy/complexity trade-off in image classification) on disjoint subsets of data (i.e. bagging). Then, we made an efficient adaptive ensemble by performing fine-tuning of a trainable combination layer. In this way, we were able to outperform the state-of-the-art by an average of 0.5\% on the accuracy with restrained complexity both in terms of number of parameters (by 5-60 times), and FLoating point Operations Per Second (by 10-100 times) on several major benchmark datasets, fully embracing the green AI.

Source: Expert systems (Online) (2023). doi:10.1111/exsy.13424

Publisher: Blackwell., Oxford, Regno Unito


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BibTeX entry
	title = {Efficient adaptive ensembling for image classification},
	author = {Bruno A. and Moroni D. and Martinelli M.},
	publisher = {Blackwell., Oxford, Regno Unito},
	doi = {10.1111/exsy.13424},
	journal = {Expert systems (Online)},
	year = {2023}