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2021 Report Open Access OPEN

Formal methods in railways: a systematic mapping study
Ferrari A., Ter Beek M. H.
Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques for the rigorous development of software-intensive systems. The railway signaling domain is a field in which formal methods have traditionally been applied, with several success stories. This article reports on a mapping study that surveys the landscape of research on applications of formal methods to the development of railway systems. Our main results are as follows: (i) we identify a total of 328 primary studies relevant to our scope published between 1989 and 2020, of which 44% published during the last 5 years and 24% involving industry; (ii) the majority of studies are evaluated through Examples (41%) and Experience Reports (38%), while full-fledged Case Studies are limited (1.5%); (iii) Model checking is the most commonly adopted technique (47%), followed by simulation (27%) and theorem proving (19.5%); (iv) the dominant languages are UML (18%) and B (15%), while frequently used tools are ProB (9%), NuSMV (8%) and UPPAAL (7%); however, a diverse landscape of languages and tools is employed; (v) the majority of systems are interlocking products (40%), followed by models of high-level control logic (27%); (vi) most of the studies focus on the Architecture (66%) and Detailed Design (45%) development phases. Based on these findings, we highlight current research gaps and expected actions. In particular, the need to focus on more empirically sound research methods, such as Case Studies and Controlled Experiments, and to lower the degree of abstraction, by applying formal methods and tools to development phases that are closer to software development. Our study contributes with an empirically based perspective on the future of research and practice in formal methods applications for railways.Source: ISTI-TR-2021/006, 2021
DOI: 10.32079/isti-tr-2021/006
Project(s): 4SECURAIL via OpenAIRE, ASTRail via OpenAIRE

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2021 Report Open Access OPEN

Systematic evaluation and usability analysis of formal tools for railway system design
Ferrari A., Mazzanti F., Basile D., Ter Beek M. H.
Formal methods and supporting tools have a long record of success in the development of safety-critical systems. However, no single tool has emerged as the dominant solution for system design. Each tool differs from the others in terms of the modeling language used, its verification capabilities and other complementary features, and each development context has peculiar needs that require different tools. This is particularly problematic for the railway industry, in which formal methods are highly recommended by the norms, but no actual guidance is provided for the selection of tools. To guide companies in the selection of the most appropriate formal tools to adopt in their contexts, a clear assessment of the features of the currently available tools is required. To address this goal, this paper considers a set of 13 formal tools that have been used for railway system design, and it presents a systematic evaluation of such tools and a preliminary usability analysis of a subset of 7 tools, involving railway practitioners. The results are discussed considering the most desired aspects by industry and earlier related studies. While the focus is on the railway domain, the overall methodology can be applied to similar contexts. Our study thus contributes with a systematic evaluation of formal tools and it shows that despite the poor graphical interfaces, usability and maturity of the tools are not major problems, as claimed by contributions from the literature. Instead, support for process integration is the most relevant obstacle for the adoption of most of the tools.Source: ISTI-2021-TR/007, 2021
DOI: 10.32079/isti-tr-2021/007
Project(s): 4SECURAIL via OpenAIRE, ASTRail via OpenAIRE

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2021 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN

Preface: 4th Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Requirements Engineering (NLP4RE 2021)
Abualhaija S., Aydemir F. B., Ferrari A., Guo J.
The Natural Language Processing for Requirements Engineering Workshop (NLP4RE) was established in 2018 as a venue to foster communication between researchers and practitioners interested in the field. The 2021 edition was held virtually in Essen, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and saw the presentation of 10 papers covering different aspects of NLP4RE, including information extraction (e.g., rationale, causality), requirements classification and chat-bots. The workshop saw a lively participation, with over 25 participants during the keynote and about 20 participants during the paper presentation sessions.Source: REFSQ 2021: Joint Proceedings of Workshops, OpenRE, Posters and Tools Track, and Doctoral Symposium, edited by F. B. Aydemir, C. Gralha, 2021

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2021 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Is requirements similarity a good proxy for software similarity? An empirical investigation in industry
Abbas M., Ferrari A., Shatnawi A., Enoiu E. P., Saadatmand M.
[Context and Motivation] Content-based recommender systems for requirements are typically built on the assumption that similar requirements can be used as proxies to retrieve similar software. When a new requirement is proposed by a stakeholder, natural language processing (NLP)-based similarity metrics can be exploited to retrieve existing requirements, and in turn identify previously developed code. [Question/problem] Several NLP approaches for similarity computation are available, and there is little empirical evidence on the adoption of an effective technique in recommender systems specifically oriented to requirements-based code reuse. [Principal ideas/results] This study compares different state-of-the-art NLP approaches and correlates the similarity among requirements with the similarity of their source code. The evaluation is conducted on real-world requirements from two industrial projects in the railway domain. Results show that requirements similarity computed with the traditional tf-idf approach has the highest correlation with the actual software similarity in the considered context. Furthermore, results indicate a moderate positive correlation with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of more than 0.5. [Contribution] Our work is among the first ones to explore the relationship between requirements similarity and software similarity. In addition, we also identify a suitable approach for computing requirements similarity that reflects software similarity well in an industrial context. This can be useful not only in recommender systems but also in other requirements engineering tasks in which similarity computation is relevant, such as tracing and categorization.Source: REFSQ 2021 - 27th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, pp. 3–18, Online conference, 12-15/04/2021
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-73128-1_1

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2021 Conference article Open Access OPEN

SaPeer approach for training requirements analysts: an application tailored to a low-resource context
Vilela J., Ferrari A.
[Context and Motivation] Role-playing is a typical pedagogical strategy frequently applied in requirements engineering education and training (REET). The technique was proven to be successful for teaching different requirements engineering (RE) activities, and the SaPeer role-playing approach was recently proposed to train students in requirements elicitation interviews. SaPeer was shown to be effective and useful in the context of a high-resource RE module involving seven tutors, and a three-weeks individual assignment. [Question/Problem] RE lectures are frequently conducted as part of software engineering courses, or in short RE modules, and there is often limited time to teach RE in general, and interviews in particular. Therefore, SaPeer needs to be adapted to these constrained contexts, and adequately assessed. [Principal idea/Results] In this paper, we present the application of SaPeer to a low-resource context. We tailor the approach to a one-week group assignment, involving one tutor only, and we apply it to a class of 24 students. By comparing our results with the original study, we find that students struggle in similar areas, and especially in question omission and planning. A qualitative analysis of the feedback of the students shows the appreciation for the interview experience, and offers specific recommendations for improving the educational material. [Contribution] We contribute to the literature in REET with the first tailored application of SaPeer. Our study extends the scope of SaPeer and offers the possibility of adopting it in other constrained contexts.Source: REFSQ 2021 - 27th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, pp. 191–207, Online conference, 12-15/04/2021
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-73128-1_14

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2021 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Natural Language Processing for Requirements Engineering
Zhao L., Alhoshan W., Ferrari A., Letsholo K. J., Ajagbe M. A., Chioasca E. V., Batista-navarro R. T.
Natural Language Processing for Requirements Engineering (NLP4RE) is an area of research and development that seeks to apply natural language processing (NLP) techniques, tools, and resources to the requirements engineering (RE) process, to support human analysts to carry out various linguistic analysis tasks on textual requirements documents, such as detecting language issues, identifying key domain concepts, and establishing requirements traceability links. This article reports on a mapping study that surveys the landscape of NLP4RE research to provide a holistic understanding of the field. Following the guidance of systematic review, the mapping study is directed by five research questions, cutting across five aspects of NLP4RE research, concerning the state of the literature, the state of empirical research, the research focus, the state of tool development, and the usage of NLP technologies. Our main results are as follows: (i) we identify a total of 404 primary studies relevant to NLP4RE, which were published over the past 36 years and from 170 different venues; (ii) most of these studies (67.08%) are solution proposals, assessed by a laboratory experiment or an example application, while only a small percentage (7%) are assessed in industrial settings; (iii) a large proportion of the studies (42.70%) focus on the requirements analysis phase, with quality defect detection as their central task and requirements specification as their commonly processed document type; (iv) 130 NLP4RE tools (i.e., RE specific NLP tools) are extracted from these studies, but only 17 of them (13.08%) are available for download; (v) 231 different NLP technologies are also identified, comprising 140 NLP techniques, 66 NLP tools, and 25 NLP resources, but most of them-particularly those novel NLP techniques and specialized tools-are used infrequently; by contrast, commonly used NLP technologies are traditional analysis techniques (e.g., POS tagging and tokenization), general-purpose tools (e.g., Stanford CoreNLP and GATE) and generic language lexicons (WordNet and British National Corpus). The mapping study not only provides a collection of the literature in NLP4RE but also, more importantly, establishes a structure to frame the existing literature through categorization, synthesis and conceptualization of the main theoretical concepts and relationships that encompass both RE and NLP aspects. Our work thus produces a conceptual framework of NLP4RE. The framework is used to identify research gaps and directions, highlight technology transfer needs, and encourage more synergies between the RE community, the NLP one, and the software and systems practitioners. Our results can be used as a starting point to frame future studies according to a well-defined terminology and can be expanded as new technologies and novel solutions emerge.Source: ACM computing surveys 54 (2021). doi:10.1145/3444689
DOI: 10.1145/3444689

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2021 Contribution to journal Open Access OPEN

Requirements engineering: foundation for software quality (REFSQ2020)
Ferrari A., Madhavji N. H., Pasquale L.
Source: Information and software technology 137 (2021). doi:10.1016/j.infsof.2021.106636
DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2021.106636

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2021 Conference article Open Access OPEN

NLP for Requirements Engineering: tasks, techniques, tools, and technologies
Ferrari A., Zhao L., Alhoshan W.
Requirements engineering (RE) is one of the most natural language-intensive fields within the software engineering area. Therefore, several works have been developed across the years to automate the analysis of natural language artifacts that are relevant for RE, including requirements documents, but also app reviews, privacy policies, and social media content related to software products. Furthermore, the recent diffusion of game- changing natural language processing (NLP) techniques and plat- forms has also boosted the interest of RE researchers. However, a reference framework to provide a holistic understanding of the field of NLP for RE is currently missing. Based on the results of a recent systematic mapping study, and stemming from a previous ICSE tutorial by one of the authors, this technical briefing gives an overview of NLP for RE tasks, available techniques, supporting tools and NLP technologies. It is oriented to both researchers and practitioners, and will gently guide the audience towards a clearer view of how NLP can empower RE, providing pointers to representative works and specialised tools.Source: ICSE-Companion - 43rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 322–323, Online conference, 25-28/05/2021
DOI: 10.1109/icse-companion52605.2021.00137

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Using NLP to support terminology extraction and domain scoping: report on the H2020 DESIRA project
Bacco F. M., Brunori G., Dell'Orletta F., Ferrari A.
The ongoing phenomenon of digitisation is changing social and work life, with tangible effects on the socio-economic context. Understanding the impact, opportunities, and threats of digital transformation requires the identication of viewpoints from a large diversity of stakeholders, from policy makers to domain experts, and from engineers to common citizens. The DESIRA (Digitisation: Economic and Social Impacts in Rural Areas) EU H2020 project1 considers rural areas, with a strong focus on agricultural and forestry activities, and aims at assessing the impact of digital technologies in those domains by involving a large number of stakeholders, all across Europe, around 20 focal questions. Given the involvement of stakeholders with diverse background and skills, a primary goal of the project is to develop domain-specic and interactive reference taxonomies (i.e., structured classications of terms) to facilitate common understanding of technologies in use in each domain at today. The taxonomies, which aims at easing the learning of the meaning of technical and domain-specic terms, are going to be exploited by the stakeholders in 20 Living Labs built around the focal questions. This report paper focuses on the semi-automatic development of the taxonomies through natural language processing (NLP) techniques based on context-specic term extraction. Furthermore, we crawl Wikipedia to enrich the taxonomies with additional categories and denitions. We plan to validate the taxonomies through fieeld studies within the Living Labs.Source: Third Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Requirements Engineering, pp. 1–5, Pisa, Italy, 24 March 2020
Project(s): DESIRA via OpenAIRE

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

IoT as a digital game changer in rural areas: the DESIRA conceptual approach
Bacco M., Brunori G., Ferrari A., Koltsida P., Toli E.
Digital transformation is a process encompassing significant changes in both social and economical domains because of the adoption of digital technologies. The EU H2020 DESIRA (Digitisation: Economic and Social Impacts in Rural Areas) project is working on defining a methodology and creating a knowledge base to characterize digital transformation. The goal is to support those in charge of responding to digitization-related challenges in rural areas, especially considering agriculture and forestry. This work presents preliminary activities in the project aiming to identify (i) Digital Game Changers, like Internet of Things (IoT), facilitating the digital transformation; and (ii) a robust set of exemplary Application Scenarios (ASs). This task will support forthcoming activities aiming to assess the socio-economic impact of digital transformation in rural areas.Source: 2020 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), Dublin (virtual), 3-5/06/2020
DOI: 10.1109/giots49054.2020.9119674
Project(s): DESIRA via OpenAIRE

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Comparing formal tools for system design: a judgment study
Ferrari A, Mazzantif., Basile D., Ter Beek M. H., Fantechi A.
Formal methods and tools have a long history of successful applications in the design of safety-critical railway products. However, most of the experiences focused on the application of a single method at once, and little work has been performed to compare the applicability of the different available frameworks to the railway context. As a result, companies willing to introduce formal methods in their development process have little guidance on the selection of tools that couldfi t their needs. To address this goal, this paper presents a comparison between 9 different formal tools, namely Atelier B, CADP, FDR4, NuSMV, ProB, Simulink, SPIN, UMC, and UPPAAL SMC. We performed a judgment study, involving 17 experts with experience in formal methods applied to railways. In the study, part of the experts were required to model a railway signaling problem (a moving-block train distancing system) with the different tools, and to provide feedback on their experience. The information produced was then synthesized, and the results were validated by the remaining experts. Based on the outcome of this process, we provide a synthesis that describes when to use a certain tool, and what are the problems that may be faced by modelers. Our experience shows that the different tools serve different purposes, and multiple formal methods are required to fully cover the needs of the railway system design process.Source: ICSE'20 - 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 62–74, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 27/6/2020-19/7/2020
DOI: 10.1145/3377811.3380373
Project(s): 4SECURAIL via OpenAIRE, ASTRail via OpenAIRE

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2020 Bachelor thesis Restricted

Analisi e Visualizzazione di Categorie Wikipedia Tramite Grafi
Fenu G. M.
Contesto Negli ultimi anni, le tecniche di sviluppo del software si sono evolute di pari passo con la crescita delle dimensioni e della complessità dei programmi. L'aumentare della complessità dei programmi ha reso necessario la definizione di modelli di sviluppo per il software, dalla sua concezione iniziale, fino alla sua completa realizzazione. Un generico modello di sviluppo software include le nozioni di specifica delle funzionalità del software, di design e di architettura software. La specifica delle funzionalità del software si concentra sulla definizione di requisiti del sistema, cioè bisogni e obiettivi che il sistema deve soddisfare. La necessità di definire bisogni e obiettivi, che rappresentino al meglio un sistema software, ha fatto nascere nuove aree di studio come l'Ingegneria dei Requisiti, e nuove figure professionali come l'analista di requisiti (noto anche come analista funzionale), che si occupa di identificare, raccogliere, documentare e analizzare i requisiti. Problema Durante il processo di raccolta dei requisiti vengono coinvolti anche domini diversi allo stesso momento, e gli analisti devono interagire con gli esperti del dominio per ottenere le conoscenze del dominio necessarie per sviluppare il sistema. A tal fine, vengono organizzati incontri con i soggetti interessati sotto forma di interviste, focus group o workshop. Durante queste riunioni, gli analisti dei requisiti e gli esperti di dominio potrebbero usare i loro gerghi specializzati e potrebbero sorgere ambiguità tra analisti ed esperti di dominio, nonché tra parti interessate appartenenti a domini diversi. L'ambiguità nella comunicazione è considerata un grave ostacolo per il trasferimento di conoscenze, dal momento che bisogni o aspetti del dominio comunicati in modo non corretto potrebbero portare alla definizione di requisiti scadenti, che possono causare problemi nelle fasi successive dello sviluppo. Soluzione Questa tesi propone di aiutare gli analisti dei requisiti e gli esperti di dominio nel creare uno spazio comune di conoscenza per facilitare la comunicazione durante le fasi di raccolta dei requisiti. Questo obiettivo viene raggiunto tramite la definizione di una tassonomia interattiva di termini tecnici, navigabile e collegata a Wikipedia. La tassonomia può essere visualizzata da esperti di dominio e analisti dei requisiti per esplorare i rispettivi ambiti terminologici. A tal fine, nel contesto di questa tesi è stato sviluppato il tool \textbf{WikiScan}, che permette di scaricare automaticamente categorie e pagine Wikipedia specifiche di uno o più domini, e di rappresentare le relazioni tra le pagine tramite un grafo visuale navigabile. Contributo WikiScan può aiutare gli utenti a esplorare attivamente i nuovi domini, partendo da termini noti ed espandendo le proprie conoscenze. Data una categoria di interesse, WikiScan permette di esplorare tutte le sotto-categorie e pagine Wikipedia, al fine di creare un indice navigabile ed evidenziare elementi comuni fra domini di partenza diversi, nonché di accedere a Wikipedia stessa per approfondimenti. Lo sviluppo del tool WikiScan fa parte del lavoro di tirocinio svolto all'interno dell'Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI) del CNR, sede di Pisa.

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Designing a demonstrator of formal methods for railways infrastructure managers
Basile D., Ter Beek M. H., Fantechi A., Ferrari A., Gnesi S., Masullo L., Mazzanti F., Piattino A., Trentini D.
The Shift2Rail Innovation Programme (IP) is focussing on innovative technologies to enhance the overall railway market segments. Formal methods and standard interfaces have been identified as two key concepts to reduce time-to-market and costs, while ensuring safety, interoperability and standardisation. However, the decision to start using formal methods is still deemed too risky. Demonstrating technical and commercial benefits of both formal methods and standard interfaces is necessary to address the obstacles of learning curve and lack of clear cost/benefit analysis that are hindering their adoption, and this is the goal of the 4SECURail project, recently funded by the Shift2Rail IP. In this paper, we provide the reasoning and the rationale for designing the formal methods demonstrator for the 4SECURail project. The design concerns two important issues that have been analysed: (i) the usefulness of formal methods from the point of view of the infrastructure managers, (ii) the adoption of a semi-formal SysML notation within our formal methods demonstrator process.Source: ISoLA'20 - 9th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation: Applications, pp. 467–485, Rhodes, Greece, 20-30 October, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-61467-6_30
Project(s): 4SECURAIL via OpenAIRE

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Inspectors Academy: Pedagogical Design for Requirements Inspection Training
Bano M., Zowghi D., Ferrari A., Spoletini P.
The core aim of requirements inspection is to ensure the high quality of already elicited requirements in the Software Requirements Specification. Teaching requirements inspection to novices is challenging, as inspecting requirements needs several skills as well as knowledge of the product and process that is hard to achieve in a classroom environment. Published studies about pedagogical design specifically for teaching requirements inspection are scarce. Our objective is to present the design and evaluation of a postgraduate course for requirements inspection training. We conducted an empirical study with 138 postgraduate students, teamed up in 34 groups to conduct requirements inspection. We performed qualitative analysis on the data collected from students' reflection reports to assess the effects of the pedagogical design in terms of benefits and challenges. We also quantitatively analyze the correlation between the students' performance in conducting inspections and their ability of writing specifications. From the analysis of students' reflections, several themes emerged such as their difficulty of working with limited information, but also revealed the benefits of learning teamwork and writing good requirements. This qualitative analysis also provides recommendations for improving the related activities. The results revealed a moderate positive correlation between the performance in writing specification and inspection.Source: IEEE Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), pp. 215–226, Zurich, Switzerland, 31/08/2020-04/09/2020
DOI: 10.1109/re48521.2020.00032

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

The Way it Makes you Feel Predicting Users' Engagement during Interviews with Biofeedback and Supervised Learning
Girardi D., Ferrari A., Novielli N., Spoletini P., Fucci D., Huichapa T.
Capturing users' engagement is crucial for gathering feedback about the features of a software product. In a market-driven context, current approaches to collect and analyze users' feedback are based on techniques leveraging information extracted from product reviews and social media. These approaches are hardly applicable in bespoke software development, or in contexts in which one needs to gather information from specific users. In such cases, companies need to resort to face-To-face interviews to get feedback on their products. In this paper, we propose to utilize biofeedback to complement interviews with information about the engagement of the user on the discussed features and topics. We evaluate our approach by interviewing users while gathering their biometric data using an Empatica E4 wristband. Our results show that we can predict users' engagement by training supervised machine learning algorithms on the biometric data. The results of our work can be used to facilitate the prioritization of product features and to guide the interview based on users' engagement.Source: IEEE Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), pp. 32–43, 31/08/2020-04/09/2020
DOI: 10.1109/re48521.2020.00016

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2020 Report Restricted

DESIRA - D1.3: Synthesis report on the taxonomy and inventory of digital game changers
Bacco F. M., Barsocchi P., Brunori G., Debruyne L., Ferrari A., Gotta A., Koltsida P., Lepore F., Orsini A., Rolandi S., Scotti I., Toli E.
This document describes a toolkit designed within the DESIRA project to support the work in the 20 Living Labs. This toolkit is composed of several parts: the inventory of digital tools, the set of application scenarios as derived from the inventory, a list of digital technologies with the potential of being digital game changers (DGCs), and a map of plausible socio-economic impacts associated with the selected potential DGCs. Several experts' interviews have been performed to enrich and support the toolkit.Source: Project report, DESIRA, Deliverable D1.3, pp.1–77, 2020
Project(s): DESIRA via OpenAIRE

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2020 Journal article Open Access OPEN

SaPeer and ReverseSaPeer: teaching requirements elicitation interviews with role-playing and role reversal
Ferrari A., Spoletini P., Bano M., Zowghi D.
Among the variety of the available requirements elicitation techniques, interviews are the most commonly used. Performing effective interviews is challenging, especially for students and novice analysts, since interviews' success depends largely on soft skills and experience. Despite their diffusion and their challenging nature, when it comes to requirements engineering education and training (REET), limited resources and few well-founded pedagogical approaches are available to allow students to acquire and improve their skills as interviewers. To overcome this limitation, this paper presents two pedagogical approaches, namelySaPeerandReverseSaPeer.SaPeeruses role-playing, peer review and self-assessment to enable students to experience first-hand the difficulties related to the interviewing process, reflect on their mistakes, and improve their interview skills by practice and analysis.ReverseSaPeerbuilds on the first approach and includes a role reversal activity in which participants play the role of a customer interviewed by a competent interviewer. We evaluate the effectiveness ofSaPeerthrough a controlled quasi-experiment, which shows that the proposed approach significantly reduces the amount of mistakes made by the participants and that it is perceived as useful and easy by the participants.ReverseSaPeerand the impact of role reversal are analyzed through a thematic analysis of the participant's reflections. The analysis shows that not only the students perceive the analysis as beneficial, but also that they have emotional involvement in learning. This work contributes to the body of knowledge of REET with two methods, quantitative and qualitative evaluated, respectively. Furthermore, we share the pedagogical material used, to enable other educators to apply and possibly tailor the approach.Source: Requirements engineering (Lond., Print) 25 (2020): 417–438. doi:10.1007/s00766-020-00334-0
DOI: 10.1007/s00766-020-00334-0

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2020 Report Open Access OPEN

4SECURail - D.2.1: Specification of formal development demonstrator
Mazzanti F., Basile D., Fantechi A., Gnesi S., Ferrari A., Piattino A., Masullo L., Trentini D.
The overall goal of the Workstream 1 "Demonstrator Development for the use of Formal Methods in Railway Environment", spreading on the activities of Tasks 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 2.4 of the 4SecuRail project is: - the definition of a "formal methods demonstrator process" (shortly Demonstrator) for the rigorous construction and analysis of system specifications (from the point of view of infrastructure managers); - the application of the Demonstrator process to a railway signalling system case study; - with the goal of performing a cost benefits analysis and the evaluation of the required learning curve for the application of this Demonstrator process This Deliverable "Specification of formal development demonstrator", describing the result of the first part of Task 2.1, presents the overall structure of the Demonstrator process and illustrates the selected choices for its architecture, both in terms of methodologies and tools. The specified formal development demonstrator will be experimented with its application to a simple initial case study in the second part of Task 2.1. The experience gained with this initial experimentation will result in the consolidation of the definition of the Demonstrator process prototype (reported in the Deliverable D2.2 of Task 2.1 "Formal development demonstrator prototype - 1st release"). The consolidated process will then be applied in Task 2.3 to the complete case study defined in Task 2.2 and that activity will provide the reference for the costs-benefits analysis of Task 2.4.Source: Project Report, 4SECURail, D2.1, 2020
Project(s): 4SECURAIL via OpenAIRE

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2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

A refinement calculus for requirements engineering based on argumentation theory
Elrakaiby Y., Borgida A., Ferrari A., Mylopoulos J.
The Requirements Engineering (RE) process starts with initial requirements elicited from stakeholders - however conflicting, unattainable, incomplete and ambiguous - and iteratively refines them into a specification that is consistent, complete, valid and unambiguous. We propose a novel RE process in the form of a calculus where the process is envisioned as an iterative application of refinement operators, with each operator removing a defect from the current requirements. Our proposal is motivated by the dialectic and incremental nature of RE activities. The calculus, which we call CaRE, casts the RE problem as an iterative argument between stakeholders, who point out defects (ambiguity, incompleteness, etc.) of existing requirements, and then propose refinements to address those defects, thus leading to the construction of a refinement graph. This graph is then a conceptual model of an RE process enactment. The semantics of these models is provided by Argumentation Theory, where a requirement may be attacked for having a defect, which in turn may be eliminated by a refinement.Source: ER 2020 - International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, pp. 3–18, Vienna, Austria, November 03-06, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-62522-1_1

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2020 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

7th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Requirements Engineering (AIRE'20)
Bencomo N., Ferrari A., Aydemir F. B., Rahimi M.
Source: 7th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Requirements Engineering (AIRE'20), Evento online, 01/09/2020
DOI: 10.1109/aire51212.2020.00005
DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.577

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