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2021 Contribution to journal Open Access OPEN

Special Issue "Remote sensing for maritime and water monitoring"
Pieri G., Reggiannini M.
Remote sensing plays a crucial role in the supervision of extended maritime areas. In particular, multisensor multisource imagery is collected daily through satellite platforms moving on earth-centered orbits. This massive amount of data, including optical images and radar maps, can be exploited for relevant purposes, such as the implementation of maritime surveillance tasks. These tasks typically address security and safety issues (vessel traffic monitoring, search and rescue) as well as environmental sustainability aspects (fishery, pollution). Satellite missions also serve the purpose of remotely measuring meaningful properties of the water column (e.g., salinity, turbidity, pollutants concentration), enabling chemophysical surveys of maritime areas of interest. Publications in this Special Issue will aim at composing a comprehensive overview of the several aspects that emerge in the implementation of maritime observation platforms through data processing. With these topics in mind, among various other subjects, the authors are invited to discuss theoretical issues and methods concerning remote sensing and data processing over the marine and maritime environment (such as software platforms for surveillance or monitoring, processing algorithms for radar or optical imagery, sea-level assessment through satellite altimetry, integrated methods for the observation of the maritime environment, etc.), not excluding application case studies focused on remote sensing within the maritime context. To this purpose, authors are invited to submit contributions that take into consideration the following topics: Maritime data representation, analysis, and learning, Ocean observation applied to fishing sustainability or biodiversity, Techniques for data processing applied to maritime observation, Target detection, classification, and identification in maritime data, Marine pollution monitoring along with sea environment monitoring issues, Open water analysis and trends based on remote sensing.Source: Basilea: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2021
Project(s): NAUTILOS via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.mdpi.com Open Access


2021 Report Open Access OPEN

SI-Lab Annual Research Report 2020
Leone G. R., Righi M., Carboni A., Caudai C., Colantonio S., Kuruoglu E. E., Leporini B., Magrini M., Paradisi P., Pascali M. A., Pieri G., Reggiannini M., Salerno E., Scozzari A., Tonazzini A., Fusco G., Galesi G., Martinelli M., Pardini F., Tampucci M., Buongiorno R., Bruno A., Germanese D., Matarese F., Coscetti S., Coltelli P., Jalil B., Benassi A., Bertini G., Salvetti O., Moroni D.
The Signal & Images Laboratory (http://si.isti.cnr.it/) is an interdisciplinary research group in computer vision, signal analysis, smart vision systems and multimedia data understanding. It is part of the Institute for Information Science and Technologies of the National Research Council of Italy. This report accounts for the research activities of the Signal and Images Laboratory of the Institute of Information Science and Technologies during the year 2020.Source: ISTI Technical Report, ISTI-2021-TR/009, pp.1–38, 2021
DOI: 10.32079/isti-tr-2021/009

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2021 Report Closed Access

OSIRIS-FO - OSIRIS PDR Meeting - CNR-ISTI current status
Salerno E., Martinelli M., Reggiannini M., Righi M., Tampucci M.
ESA OSIRIS 2 Project - Current status of CNR-ISTISource: ISTI Project report, OSIRIS-FO, 2021

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2021 Report Closed Access

Ship kinematics estimation based on doppler centroid deviation in synthetic aperture radar images
Reggiannini M.
This technical report describes a method, and the related software, to estimate the kinematics of a navigating vessel by processing Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The implemented software is included within the Ship Kinematics Estimation module in the framework of OSIRIS-FO (Optical/SAR data and System Integration for Rush Identification of Ship Models - Follow On).Source: ISTI Working papers, 2021

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Contribution to conference Open Access OPEN

Augmented reality and intelligent systems in Industry 4.0
Benassi A., Carboni A., Colantonio S., Coscetti S., Germanese D., Jalil B., Leone R., Magnavacca J., Magrini M., Martinelli M., Matarese F., Moroni D., Paradisi P., Pardini F., Pascali M., Pieri G., Reggiannini M., Righi M., Salvetti O., Tampucci M.
Augmented reality and intelligent systems in Industry 4.0 - Presentazione ARTESSource: ARTES, 12/11/2020
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4277713
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4277712

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2020 Report Closed Access

Optical/SAR data and system Integration for Rush Identification of Ship models OSIRIS 2 - ESA Project The Ground Truth Data Base
Martinelli M., Reggiannini M., Righi M., Salerno E., Tampucci M.
Presentazione Kick-Off MeetingSource: Project report, 2020

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Report Closed Access

OSIRIS-FO
Martinelli M., Moroni D., Reggiannini M., Righi M., Salerno E., Tampucci M.
OSIRIS-FO Ship Classification and Ship Kinematics EstimationSource: Project report, OSIRIS-FO, 2020

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Journal article Open Access OPEN

The use of saliency in underwater computer vision: a review
Reggiannini M., Moroni D.
Underwater survey and inspection are tasks of paramount relevance for a variety of applications. They are usually performed through the employment of optical and acoustic sensors installed aboard underwater vehicles, in order to capture details of the surrounding environment. The informative properties of the data are systematically affected by a number of disturbing factors, such as the signal energy absorbed by the propagation medium or diverse noise categories contaminating the resulting imagery. Restoring the signal properties in order to exploit the carried information is typically a tough challenge. Visual saliency refers to the computational modeling of the preliminary perceptual stages of human vision, where the presence of conspicuous targets within a surveyed scene activates neurons of the visual cortex, specifically sensitive to meaningful visual variations. In relatively recent years, visual saliency has been exploited in the field of automated underwater exploration. This work provides a comprehensive overview of the computational methods implemented and applied in underwater computer vision tasks, based on the extraction of visual saliency-related features.Source: Remote sensing (Basel) 13 (2020). doi:10.3390/rs13010022
DOI: 10.3390/rs13010022
Project(s): NAUTILOS via OpenAIRE

See at: Remote Sensing Open Access | Remote Sensing Open Access | Remote Sensing Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Remote Sensing Open Access | Remote Sensing Open Access | ZENODO Open Access | Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication Restricted | Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication Restricted | Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication Restricted


2020 Report Restricted

IRIDE - Realizzazione e sperimentazione di un prototipo di sistema integrato di monitoraggio, controllo e ispezione
Betti G., Landucci D., Masini D., Coscetti S., Labbozzetta E., Moroni D., Pieri G., Tampucci M., Reggiannini M.
Questo deliverable documenta il prototipo di sistema integrato di monitoraggio, controllo e ispezione mediante un insieme di immagini con didascalia che si riferiscono sia all'hardware realizzato e integrato sulla linea di test in Futura Lab sia le interface utente sui pannelli operatori e sullo SCADA.Source: ISTI Project report, IRIDE, D1.5, 2020

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Report Restricted

IRIDE - Piano dei Test (Deliverable D1.6 di OO1)
Betti G., Landucci D., Masini D., Coscetti S., Labbozzetta E., Moroni D., Pieri G., Tampucci M., Reggiannini M.
In questo documento è elencata la serie di test previsti per verificare il corretto funzionamento e efficienza delle varie componenti sviluppate che formano il prototipo hardware e software realizzato per il monitoraggio, controllo ed autoregolazione della linea produttiva mediante video analytics del progetto IRIDE. Nel documento "D1.5: Realizzazione e sperimentazione di un prototipo di sistema integrato di monitoraggio, controllo e ispezione" è stato descritto il prototipo di sistema integrato mediante un insieme di immagini con didascalia che si riferiscono sia all'hardware realizzato e integrato sulla linea di test in Futura Lab sia alle interface utente sui pannelli operatori e sullo SCADA. Nel documento successivo "D1.7: Report dei test" verrà riportato l'esito dei test condotti ed eventuali nuovi test scaturiti da problematiche emerse durante le attività sulla linea di converting. Nella sezione 2 vengono descritti i metodi con cui verranno condotti i test e la loro strutturazione e suddivisione. Nella sezione 3 vengono riportati nel dettaglio i test pianificati. Per ciascun test viene fornito un titolo, le motivazioni alla base del test, come questo verrà condotto e cosa verrà valutato. Viene inoltre riportata la lista di termini specifici adottati con il relativo significato. La sezione 4 infine chiude il documento riportando le conclusioni di questo rapporto di progetto.Source: ISTI Project report, IRIDE, D1.6, 2020

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Report Restricted

IRIDE - Report dei Test (Deliverable D1.7 di OO1)
Betti G., Landucci D., Masini D., Coscetti S., Labbozzetta E., Moroni D., Pieri G., Tampucci M., Reggiannini M.
In questo documento sono riportati e analizzati i risultati dei test programmati ed elencati nel deliverable "D1.6: Piano dei Test". Lo scopo dei test effettuati è quello di verificare il corretto funzionamento e l'efficienza delle varie componenti sviluppate che formano il prototipo hardware e software realizzato per il monitoraggio, controllo ed autoregolazione della linea produttiva mediante video analytics del progetto IRIDE. I test, suddivisi secondo il loro scopo (dal semplice video monitoraggio, all'analisi in locale sui moduli dedicati fino alla gestione di allerte e documentazioni a livello di SCADA) sono volti in particolare a validare il prototipo già documentato nel documento "D1.5: Realizzazione e sperimentazione di un prototipo di sistema integrato di monitoraggio, controllo e ispezione". Nella sezione 2 vengono riportati i risultati dei test pianificati e l'analisi dei risultati ottenuti., mentre la sezione 3 infine chiude il documento riportando le conclusioni di questo documento di progetto a conclusione dell'OO1 del progetto IRIDE.Source: ISTI Project report, IRIDE, D1.7, 2020

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Remote sensing for maritime prompt monitoring
Reggiannini M., Righi M., Tampucci M., Lo Duca A., Bacciu C., Bedini L., D'Errico A., Di Paola C., Marchetti A., Martinelli M., Mercurio C., Salerno E., Zizi B.
The main purpose of this paper is to describe a software platform dedicated to sea surveillance, capable of detecting and identifying illegal maritime traffic. This platform results from the cascade pipeline of several image processing algorithms that input Radar or Optical imagery captured by satellite-borne sensors and try to identify vessel targets in the scene and provide quantitative descriptors about their shape and motion. This platform is innovative since it integrates in its architecture heterogeneous data and data processing solutions with the goal of identifying navigating vessels in a unique and completely automatic processing streamline. More in detail, the processing chain consists of: (i) the detection of target vessels in an input map; (ii) the estimation of each vessel's most descriptive geometrical and scatterometric (for radar images) features; (iii) the estimation of the kinematics of each vessel; (iv) the prediction of each vessel's forthcoming route; and (v) the visualization of the results in a dedicated webGIS interface. The resulting platform represents a novel tool to counteract unauthorized fishing and tackle irregular migration and the related smuggling activities.Source: Journal of marine science and engineering 7 (2019). doi:10.3390/jmse7070202
DOI: 10.3390/jmse7070202

See at: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Journal of Marine Science and Engineering Open Access | Journal of Marine Science and Engineering Open Access


2019 Contribution to journal Open Access OPEN

Special Issue "Ocean Big Data Application - Engineering"
Pieri G., Reggiannini M.
Ocean observation represents a crucial task for human communities. Above sea level, this entails the implementation of maritime surveillance platforms, typically addressing security and safety issues (vessel traffic monitoring, search and rescue) as well as environmental sustainability aspects (fishery, pollution). On the other hand, the submerged ocean environment poses equally hard challenges for what concerns oil and gas exploitation or biology and cultural heritage safeguard. Performing the mentioned activities operationally requires the collection of a huge amount of multi-source and multi-sensor data, typically including optical images, videos, sonograms, radar/synthetic aperture radar maps, hydrocarbon concentration measurements, and so on. Publications in this Special Issue will aim at composing a comprehensive overview of the several aspects that emerge in the implementation of ocean observation platforms through big data processing. With these issues in mind, among the various subjects the authors are invited to discuss theoretical issues in big data processing for ocean observation, as well as methods for big data processing through high performance computing (such as cloud computing infrastructures, big data fusion, etc.), not excluding application case studies exploiting big data issues. To this purpose, authors are invited to submit contributions that take into considerations the following topics: Ocean data representation, analysis and learning; Deep learning applied to big data for ocean observation; Techniques for data processing applied to ocean observation and cultural heritage safeguard; Target detection, classification and identification in ocean data; Vessel traffic monitoring; Marine pollution monitoring along with sea environment monitoring issues. Dr. Gabriele Pieri Dr. Marco Reggiannini Guest EditorsSource: Basilea: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2019

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | www.mdpi.com Open Access


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Towards a behavior analysis of remote-sensed vessels
Reggiannini M., Salerno E., Martinelli M., Righi M., Tampucci M., Bedini L.
This paper analyzes the potentialities to classify vessels detected through optical and synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite-borne platforms and estimate their motion. For classification, the discriminative power of a set of geometric features extracted from segmented remote-sensed images is valuated by clustering data derived from a set of accurate footprints belonging to either tanker or cargo ships. The same procedure is repeated on a few dozens of real, remote-sensed optical images. Concerning velocity estimation, which in this context is based on the detection and analysis of the wake pattern generated by the ship motion, a discussion concerning the accuracy of the wake detection task is presented. In particular, since wake patterns are usually hard to detect, a method is proposed to enhance the wake signal-to-noise ratio, based on a dedicated pre-filtering stage. Results returned by the proposed method are compared with those obtained adopting a standard literature approach, eventually observing that the introduction of the prefiltering stage improves the wake detection accuracy. A maritime surveillance system based on a pipeline of the modules described here represents a useful tool to support the authorities in charge of monitoring maritime traffic with safety, security and law enforcement purposes.Source: 15th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems, pp. 595–602, Sorrento, Napoli, Italy, 26-29/11/2019
DOI: 10.1109/sitis.2019.00100

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | conferences.computer.org Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Multi-sensor satellite data processing for marine traffic understanding
Reggiannini M., Bedini L.
The work described in this document concerns the estimation of the kinematics of a navigating vessel. This task can be accomplished through the exploitation of satellite-borne systems for Earth observation. Indeed, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical sensors installed aboard satellites (European Space Agency Sentinel, ImageSat International Earth Remote Observation System, Italian Space Agency Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation) return multi-resolution maps providing information about the marine surface. A moving ship represented through satellite imaging results in a bright oblong object, with a peculiar wake pattern generated by the ship’s passage throughout the water. By employing specifically tailored computer vision methods, these vessel features can be identified and individually analyzed for what concerns geometrical and radiometric properties, backscatterers spatial distribution and the spectral content of the wake components. This paper proposes a method for the automatic detection of the vessel’s motion-related features and their exploitation to provide an estimation of the vessel velocity vector. In particular, the ship’s related wake pattern is considered as a crucial target of interest for the purposes mentioned. The corresponding wake detection module has been implemented adopting a novel approach, i.e., by introducing a specifically tailored gradient estimator in the early processing stages. This results in the enhancement of the turbulent wake detection performance. The resulting overall procedure may also be included in marine surveillance systems in charge of detecting illegal maritime traffic, combating unauthorized fishing, irregular migration and related smuggling activities.Source: Electronics (Basel) 8 (2019). doi:10.3390/electronics8020152
DOI: 10.3390/electronics8020152

See at: Electronics Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Electronics Open Access | Electronics Open Access


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

SEARCH & INSPECTION ARCHAEOLOGICAL UNDERWATER CAMPAIGNS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN ARROWS PROJECT
Allotta B., Costanzi R., Mugnai F., Reggiannini M., Ridolfi A., Scaradozzi D.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), benefiting from significant investments in the past years, are commonly used for military security and offshore Oil&Gas applications. The ARROWS project, aimed at exporting the AUV technology to the field of underwater archaeology, a low-budget research field compared to the previous ones. The paper focuses on the strategy for vehicle coordination adopted within the project, a Search and Inspection (S&I) approach borrowed from the defense field (e.g., mine countermeasure - MCM) that proved to be an efficient solution also for the main phases of an underwater archaeological mission. The other main novelty aspect is represented by MARTA (MArine Robotic Tool for Archaeology) AUV: it is a modular vehicle easily and quickly reconfigurable developed in the framework of ARROWS according to the project Archaeological Advisory Group (AAG) guidelines. Results from the final demonstration of the project, held in Estonia during Summer 2015, are proposed in the paper as an experimental proof of the validity of the proposed S&I strategy, and MARTA functioning and its adaptability to the mission requirements. Even in its first prototype version, MARTA successfully played the Inspection role within the AUV team, collaborating with a commercial Search AUV. Acoustic and optical data collected during the mission and processed to increase their intelligibility for the human operator are proposed and discussed.Source: 27th CIPA International Symposium "Documenting the past for a better future", pp. 63–70, Avila, Spain, 1-5 September 2019
DOI: 10.5194/isprs-archives-xlii-2-w15-63-2019
Project(s): ARROWS via OpenAIRE

See at: The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Open Access | The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Open Access | Archivio della Ricerca - Università di Pisa Restricted


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Remote Sensing for Maritime Monitoring and Vessel Characterization
Reggiannini M.
The main objective of the work described here concerns the development of automatic ICT procedures in charge of processing imagery data captured by satellite-borne sensors to assess the status of a given maritime area. The mentioned assessment may refer to the detection and identification of peculiar objects, such as oil leaks or, in case of maritime traffic control, the recognition of navigating vessels. This paper specifically focuses on the development of methods for estimating the kinematics of a navigating vessel through the detection and analysis, in the 2D satellite imagery, of the corresponding wake pattern. The proposed method differentiates from those retrieved in previous literature for the introduction of a novel preprocessing stage, which allows for an enhancement in the overall performance of the wake detector. The resulting procedure represents a key functionality to be included in platforms dedicated to sea surveillance.Source: OCEANS 2019, pp. 1–7, Marseille, 17-20 June 2019
DOI: 10.1109/oceanse.2019.8867258

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2019 Report Restricted

IRIDE - Metodi per l'annotazione automatica dei filmati e la classificazione di eventi e allarmi
Landucci D, Coscetti S., Moroni D., Pieri G. Tampucci M., Reggiannini M.
Questo deliverable descrive l'attività svolte e il software sviluppato nel corso dell'Attività 1.4 "Progettazione e sviluppo di metodi per la annotazione automatica dei filmati e la classificazione di eventi e allarmi". In primo luogo viene presentato il sistema di gestione di eventi e allerte, basato sull'infrastruttura creata nel corso dell'attività 1.3. Quindi si passa in rassegna l'analisi del dataset di video ed eventi estratti dal sistema SCADA. SI propone un insieme di algoritmi per l'elaborazione offline dei video acquisti e l'estrazione di alcuni parametri per la caratterizzazione degli artefatti riscontrati sul velo di carta tissue.Source: ISTI Project report, IRIDE, D1.4, 2019

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2018 Report Restricted

Ship Kinematics Estimation (SKE) module - Vessel kinematics estimation through SAR/Optical Imagery Processing
Reggiannini M., Bedini L.
The main goal of the work described in this report concerns the estimation of the kinematics variables related to the motion of a navigating vessel. One way to perform such operations is to process maps captured by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical sensors installed on board of satellite constellations orbiting around earth-centred trajectories. The primary goal of this processing is to identify and analyze the wake traces left by navigating vessels on the water surface. Wakes can be typically observed in high resolution SAR and optical maps. A proper processing of these surface patterns allows to estimate the orientation of the vessel motion ({\it route}) and the corresponding velocity module. The resulting estimates can be exploited in the implementation of maritime surveillance and vessel traffic monitoring purposes. This document describes the design and the implementation of the software procedures dedicated to the aforementioned purposes, together combined in the software tool named Ship Kinematics Estimation module.Source: ISTI Technical Reports, 2018

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2018 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Synthetic aperture radar processing for vessel kinematics estimation
Reggiannini M., Bedini L.
Navigating vessels leave traces of their motion in the form of wake patterns on the water surface. Wakes are visible in high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar maps and bear information related to the kinematic variables of the vessel motion. A proper processing of the wake pattern allows to estimate the vessel heading and velocity. This information can be exploited in decision procedures concerning maritime surveillance and ship traffic monitoring. This document describes the design and implementation of software procedures with the purpose of estimating the motion parameters of a navigating vessel, through processing the wake pattern generated by the vessel itself.Source: Proceedings (MDPI) 2 (2018). doi:10.3390/proceedings2020091
DOI: 10.3390/proceedings2020091
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1159154
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1159153

See at: Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | Proceedings Open Access | ZENODO Open Access