Semantic Web - Introduction to Semantic Web languages Meghini C., Bartalesi Lenzi V. The Web makes a very large amount of information available to users in the form of documents. The Semantic Web is a fundamental extension of the web as it allows, in addition to documents, the sharing of data (including document metadata) in a standard format along with their semantic context expressed in a formal and shared language. Applications in documentary science, biology, cultural heritage and electronic commerce have already demonstrated the validity of this approach. This volume constitutes a gentle introduction to the technologies and languages of the semantic web, clearly illustrating the steps necessary to transform a product published on the web into a set of data that can be processed and reused across applications, users and communities. This is the second monograph of the ebook series "Digital Culture Notebooks" edited by the Laboratory of Digital Culture of the University of Pisa (http://www.labcd.unipi.it) and published by Simonelli editore. The series houses short monographs on tools and research in the field of Digital Humanities which emerged from the work of teachers and students who collaborate with the Laboratory itself. It aims to support a wider dissemination of digital culture, understood as the field in which the humanities and some sectors of informatics interact and collaborate.Source: Milano: Simonelli, 2023
An exploratory approach to data driven knowledge creation Thanos C., Meghini C., Bartalesi V., Coro G. This paper describes a new approach to knowledge creation that is instrumental for the emerging paradigm of data-intensive science. The proposed approach enables the acquisition of new insights from the data by exploiting existing relationships between diverse types of datasets acquired through various modalities. The value of data consistently improves when it can be linked to other data because linking multiple types of datasets allows creating novel data patterns within a scientific data space. These patterns enable the exploratory data analysis, an analysis strategy that emphasizes incremental and adaptive access to the datasets constituting a scientific data space while maintaining an open mind to alternative possibilities of data interconnectivity. A technology, the Linked Open data (LOD), was developed to enable the linking of datasets. We argue that the LOD technology presents several limitations that prevent the full exploitation of this technology to acquire new insights. In this paper, we outline a new approach that enables researchers to dynamically create data patterns in a research data space by exploiting explicit and implicit/hidden relationships between distributed research datasets. This dynamic creation of data patterns enables the exploratory data analysis strategy.Source: Journal of big data 10 (2023). doi:10.1186/s40537-023-00702-x DOI: 10.1186/s40537-023-00702-x Metrics:
Typed properties and negative typed properties: dealing with type observations and negative statements in the CIDOC CRM Velios A., Meghini C., Doerr M., Stead S. A typical case of producing records within the domain of conservation of cultural heritage is considered. During condition and collection surveys in memory organisations, surveyors observe types of multiple components of an object but without creating a record for each one. They also observe the absence of components. Such observations are significant to researchers and are documented in registration forms but they are not easy to implement using popular ontologies, such as the CIDOC CRM which primarily consider individuals. In this paper techniques for expressing such observations within the context of the CIDOC CRM in both OWL and RDFS are explored. OWL cardinality restrictions are considered and new special properties deriving from the CIDOC CRM are proposed, namely 'typed properties' and 'negative typed properties' which allow stating the types of multiple individuals and the absence of individuals. The nature of these properties is then explored in relation to their correspondence to longer property paths, their hierarchical arrangement and relevance to thesauri. An example from bookbinding history is used alongside a demonstration of the proposed solution with a dataset from the library collection of the Saint Catherine Monastery in Sinai, Egypt.Source: Semantic web (Print) 14 (2023): 421–441. doi:10.3233/SW-223159 DOI: 10.3233/sw-223159 DOI: 10.25441/arts.19487468.v1 Metrics:
A roadmap for craft understanding, education, training, and preservation Zabulis X., Partarakis N., Demeridou I., Doulgeraki P., Zidianakis E., Argyros A., Theodoridou M., Marketakis Y., Meghini C., Bartalesi V., Pratelli N., Holz C., Streli P., Meier M., Seidler M. K., Werup L., Sichani P. F., Manitsaris S., Senteri G., Dubois A., Ringas C., Ziova A., Tasiopoulou E., Kaplanidi D., Arnaud D., Hee P., Canavate G., Benvenuti M. A., Krivokapic J. A roadmap is proposed that defines a systematic approach for craft preservation and its evaluation. The proposed roadmap aims to deepen craft understanding so that blueprints of appropriate tools that support craft documentation, education, and training can be designed while achieving preservation through the stimulation and diversification of practitioner income. In addition to this roadmap, an evaluation strategy is proposed to validate the efficacy of the developed results and provide a benchmark for the efficacy of craft preservation approaches. The proposed contribution aims at the catalyzation of craft education and training with digital aids, widening access and engagement to crafts, economizing learning, increasing exercisability, and relaxing remoteness constraints in craft learning.Source: Heritage (Basel) Online 6 (2023): 5305–5328. doi:10.3390/heritage6070280 DOI: 10.3390/heritage6070280 Metrics:
Representation of socio-historical context to support the authoring and presentation of multimodal narratives: the Mingei online platform Partarakis N., Doulgeraki P., Karuzaki E., Adami I., Ntoa S., Metilli D., Bartalesi V., Meghini C., Marketakis Y., Kaplanidi D., Theodoridou M., Zabulis X. In this article, the Mingei Online Platform is presented as an authoring platform for the representation of social and historic context encompassing a focal topic of interest. The proposed representation is employed in the contextualised presentation of a given topic, through documented narratives that support its presentation to diverse audiences. Using the obtained representation, the documentation and digital preservation of social and historical dimensions of Cultural Heritage are demonstrated. The implementation follows the Human-Centred Design approach and has been conducted under an iterative design and evaluation approach involving both usability and domain experts.Source: Journal on computing and cultural heritage (Online) 15 (2022): 1–26. doi:10.1145/3465556 DOI: 10.1145/3465556 Project(s): Mingei Metrics:
An exploratory approach to archaeological knowledge production Thanos C., Meghini C., Bartalesi V., Coro G. The current scientific context is characterized by intensive digitization of the research outcomes and by the creation of data infrastructures for the systematic publication of datasets and data services. Several relationships can exist among these outcomes. Some of them are explicit, e.g. the relationships of spatial or temporal similarity, whereas others are hidden, e.g. the relationship of causality. By materializing these hidden relationships through a linking mechanism, several patterns can be established. These knowledge patterns may lead to the discovery of information previously unknown. A new approach to knowledge production can emerge by following these patterns. This new approach is exploratory because by following these patterns, a researcher can get new insights into a research problem. In the paper, we report our effort to depict this new exploratory approach using Linked Data and Semantic Web technologies (RDF, OWL). As a use case, we apply our approach to the archaeological domain.Source: International journal on digital libraries (Internet) (2022). doi:10.1007/s00799-022-00324-3 DOI: 10.1007/s00799-022-00324-3 Metrics:
A representation protocol for traditional crafts Zabulis X., Partarakis N., Meghini C., Dubois A., Manitsaris S., Hauser H., Thalmann N. M., Ringas C., Panesse L., Cadi N., Baka E., Beisswenger C., Makrygiannis D., Glushkova A., Padilla B. E. O., Kaplanidi D., Tasiopoulou E., Cuenca C., Carre A. -L., Nitti V., Adami I., Zidianakis E., Doulgeraki P., Karouzaki E., Bartalesi V., Metilli D. A protocol for the representation of traditional crafts and the tools to implement this are proposed. The proposed protocol is a method for the systematic collection and organization of digital assets and knowledge, their representation into a formal model, and their utilization for research, education, and preservation. A set of digital tools accompanies this protocol that enables the online curation of craft representations. The proposed approach was elaborated and evaluated with craft practitioners in three case studies. Lessons learned are shared and an outlook for future work is provided.Source: Heritage (Basel) Online 5 (2022): 716–741. doi:10.3390/heritage5020040 DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020040 Project(s): Mingei Metrics:
AIMH research activities 2022 Aloia N., Amato G., Bartalesi V., Benedetti F., Bolettieri P., Cafarelli D., Carrara F., Casarosa V., Ciampi L., Coccomini D. A., Concordia C., Corbara S., Di Benedetto M., Esuli A., Falchi F., Gennaro C., Lagani G., Lenzi E., Meghini C., Messina N., Metilli D., Molinari A., Moreo A., Nardi A., Pedrotti A., Pratelli N., Rabitti F., Savino P., Sebastiani F., Sperduti G., Thanos C., Trupiano L., Vadicamo L., Vairo C. The Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities laboratory (AIMH) has the mission to investigate and advance the state of the art in the Artificial Intelligence field, specifically addressing applications to digital media and digital humanities, and taking also into account issues related to scalability.
This report summarize the 2022 activities of the research group.Source: ISTI Annual reports, 2022 DOI: 10.32079/isti-ar-2022/002 Metrics:
ARIADNEplus D15.2 - Final report on ARIADNEplus services Marberg J. F., Bardi A., Vlachidis A., Meghini C., Binding C., Tudhope D., Sinibaldi F., Ponchio F., Mangiacrapa F., Radman-Livaja I., Callieri M., Potenziani M., Lamé M., Assante M., Pagano P., Hermon S., Vassallo V. This deliverable describes the activities carried out within Work Package 15 (WP15) of the ARIADNEplus project by the different partners and describes the results achieved.
The work package consists of several individual tasks and subtasks with the overall goal to develop and provide useful services to archaeologists. This means the work package is by nature heterogeneous with stand-alone tasks and services. Efforts have been made to facilitate collaboration between the individual tasks through joint work package meetings. This has resulted in new cross-task contacts being made, and some sharing of expertise to improve services has been done.
A service design template aligning the ARIADNEplus services with the requirements from European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) has been created. In connection with this, the ARIADNEplus AO-CAT ontology has been adapted to the requirements from EOSC Resource Data Model (Task 15.1).
The Visual Media Service (Task 15.2.1) has had a new format added, allowing for 2D visualisation of LIDAR data in DEM format. In addition, three other standards have been added: gITF, ThreeJS and IIIF, supporting various functionality in the service. The service has also been adapted to support integration with the ARIADNEplus infrastructure in D4Science.
A visual wizard has been defined to guide Visual Media Service users to add hotspots to a 3D scene easily and quickly. This extension, initially implemented in 3DHOP will allow archaeologists to create interactive links from the digital 3D model to the related documentation without writing any source code (Task 15.2.2).
Task 15.2.3 reworked the Online 3D Database System for Endangered architectural and archaeological Heritage in the south Eastern MEditerRAnea area (EpHEMERA). EpHEMERA is a service provided by the Cyprus Institute to visualize in 3D archaeological excavations, ancient buildings, and their related documentation. In EpHEMERA, it is possible to visualise, online and through standard web browsers, 3D architectural and archaeological models (classified according to a specific type of risk), query the database system and retrieve metadata attached to each digital object, and extract geometric and morphological information about the Cultural Heritage asset.
The visualisation and annotation tool of the TSS project have been ported to the OpenLime library and integrated into the Visual Media Service (Task 15.2.1). An additional layer of SVG annotations have been developed and added to the service. The Annotation service have been used and improved in three different pilot projects. (Task 15.3.2)
Various strands of work have been done improving services for text mining and Natural Language Processing (Task 15.4). One of these efforts has been building upon the outcomes of the preceding ARIADNE project. A set of archaeological Named Entity Recognition NLP pipelines were reconfigured and deployed for easier use on the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) cloud. Another effort has been on extracting temporal archaeological information using two different parallel approaches, normalisation and named entity recognition. A Python development platform has been used to unify the various services.
A Vocabulary Annotation Tool (Task 15.3.1) was developed using the same platform, as part of Task 15.4. The tool facilitates the locating and tagging of vocabulary terms within free text and outputs suggested subject annotations in a range of formats.
The GeoPortal service (Task 15.5) is a new REST service designed to manage complex spatio-temporal documents defined by metadata profiles. It was released as a component of the gCube framework. A prototype using the service was deployed and operated to manage archaeological excavation projects (Task 15.7).
Two services for querying the RDF AO-Cat metadata records aggregated by the ARIADNEplus Infrastructure was established (Task 15.6): a full-text index service and a SPARQL endpoint. The full- text index service is based on OpenSearch and supports the needed query functionality of the ARIADNEplus portal. The SPARQL endpoint allows performance of semantic queries on the RDF records within the ARIADNEplus data and knowledge cloud.Source: ISTI Project report, ARIADNEplus, D15.2, 2022 Project(s): ARIADNEplus
Digitisation of traditional craft processes Zabulis X., Meghini C., Dubois A., Doulgeraki P., Partarakis N., Adami I., Karuzaki E., Carre A. L., Patsiouras N., Kaplanidi D., Metilli D., Bartalesi V., Ringas C., Tasiopoulou E., Stefanidi Z. An approach to the representation and documentation of craft processes is proposed. The proposed approach is a method for the systematic identification and digital representation of pertinent data, information, and knowledge. The outcome representation is compatible with contemporary digitisation practices and digital preservation standards. The implementation of the approach is provided within the context of an online platform that is accompanied by auxiliary tools for digital curation. This platform is a multiple user system, where craft representations can be collaboratively authored, shared, displayed, and digitally preserved in standardised formats. Basic uses of this scheme and presentational applications are provided, along with identification of future work and limitations.Source: ACM journal on computing and cultural heritage (Print) 15 (2022). doi:10.1145/3494675 DOI: 10.1145/3494675 Project(s): Mingei Metrics:
Representation and Presentation of Culinary Tradition as Cultural Heritage Partarakis N., Kaplanidi D., Doulgeraki P., Karuzaki E., Petraki A., Metilli D., Bartalesi V., Adami I., Meghini C., Zabulis X. This paper presents a knowledge representation framework and provides tools to allow the representation and presentation of the tangible and intangible dimensions of culinary tradition as cultural heritage including the socio-historic context of its evolution. The representation framework adheres to and extends the knowledge representation standards for the Cultural Heritage (CH) domain while providing a widely accessible web-based authoring environment to facilitate the representation activities. In strong collaboration with social sciences and humanities, this work allows the exploitation of ethnographic research outcomes by providing a systematic approach for the representation of culinary tradition in the form of recipes, both in an abstract form for their preservation and in a semantic representation of their execution captured on-site during ethnographic research.Source: Heritage (Basel) Online 4 (2021): 612–640. doi:10.3390/heritage4020036 DOI: 10.3390/heritage4020036 Project(s): Mingei Metrics:
A formal representation of the divine comedy's primary sources: The Hypermedia Dante Network ontology Bartalesi V., Pratelli N., Meghini C., Metilli D., Tomazzoli G., Livraghi L. M. G., Zaccarello M. Hypermedia Dante Network (HDN) is a 3-year Italian National Research Project, started in 2020, which aims to enrich the functionalities of the DanteSources Digital Library to efficiently represent knowledge about the primary sources of Dante's Comedy. DanteSources allows users to retrieve and visualize the list and the distribution of Dante's primary sources that have been identified by recent commentaries of five of Dante's minor works (i.e. Vita nova, De vulgari eloquentia, Convivio, De Monarchia, and Rime). The digital library is based on a formal ontology expressed in Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) language. Based on the DanteSources experience, the HDN project aims to formally represent the primary sources of the Divine Comedy whose identification is based on several commentaries included in the Dartmouth Dante Project corpus. To reach this goal, we restructured and extended the DanteSources ontology to provide a wider and more complete representation of the knowledge concerning the primary sources of the Comedy. In this article, we present the result of this effort, i.e. the HDN ontology. The ontology is expressed in OWL and has as reference ontologies the CIDOC CRM and its extension FRBRoo, including its in-progress reformulation LRMoo. We also briefly describe the semi-automatic tool that will be used by the scholars to populate the ontology.Source: Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 37 (2021): 630–643. doi:10.1093/llc/fqab080 DOI: 10.1093/llc/fqab080 Metrics:
Mapping the knowledge of Dante commentaries in the digital context: a web ontology approach Meghini C., Tavoni M., Zaccarello M. With digital repositories and databases available since the1990s, Dante scholarship has always been at the forefront of the digital humanities and the digitization of medieval texts and manuscripts. However, the amount of information available about such aspects is imposing, and its location subject to the extreme dispersion of traditional scholarly publications: commentaries first but also academic journals, miscellanies, and so forth. Rather than being based on traditional word searches, a true advancement of knowledge needs to overcome the rigidity of text-based queries (and in-line markup embedded in text). Such paramount evolution is now made possible by the Semantic Web, an extension of the current web by description standards that help machines to understand and connect the information already available on the web. To achieve this, the latter is mapped using formal description and classification patterns, called ontologies. Ontologies are a key factor in managing meaningful search/data extraction, publishing relevant results on the web, search existing web resources, and offering answers to more sophisticated queries. Due to its vastness and complexity, Dante scholarship has calls for an ontology-based mapping, and specific tools have been designed to express the most difficult and articulate aspects of Dante's literary production, such as its use of biblical, classical, and medieval sources. This paper aims to introduce the aims and scope of a new digital library of Dante commentaries, built according to the aforementioned standards and aiming to refine and extend the ontologies developed for Dante's minor works to the more complex world of the Commedia.Source: Romanic review 112 (2021): 138–157. doi:10.1215/00358118-8901843 DOI: 10.1215/00358118-8901843 Metrics:
AIMH research activities 2021 Aloia N., Amato G., Bartalesi V., Benedetti F., Bolettieri P., Cafarelli D., Carrara F., Casarosa V., Coccomini D., Ciampi L., Concordia C., Corbara S., Di Benedetto M., Esuli A., Falchi F., Gennaro C., Lagani G., Massoli F. V., Meghini C., Messina N., Metilli D., Molinari A., Moreo A., Nardi A., Pedrotti A., Pratelli N., Rabitti F., Savino P., Sebastiani F., Sperduti G., Thanos C., Trupiano L., Vadicamo L., Vairo C. The Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities laboratory (AIMH) has the mission to investigate and advance the state of the art in the Artificial Intelligence field, specifically addressing applications to digital media and digital humanities, and taking also into account issues related to scalability.
This report summarize the 2021 activities of the research group.Source: ISTI Annual Report, ISTI-2021-AR/003, pp.1–34, 2021 DOI: 10.32079/isti-ar-2021/003 Metrics:
From disparate disciplines to unity in diversity: how the PARTHENOS project has brought European Humanities research infrastructures together Uiterwaal F., Niccolucci F., Bassett S., Krauwer S., Hollander H., Admiraal F., Romary L., Bruseker G., Meghini C., Edmond J., Hedges M. Since the first ESFRI roadmap in 2006, multiple humanities Research Infrastructures (RIs) have been set up all over the European continent, supporting archaeologists (ARIADNE), linguists (CLARIN-ERIC), Holocaust researchers (EHRI), cultural heritage specialists (IPERION-CH) and others. These examples only scratch the surface of the breadth of research communities that have benefited from close cooperation in the European Research Area.Source: International journal of humanities and arts computing (Print) 15 (2021): 101–116. doi:10.3366/ijhac.2021.0264 DOI: 10.3366/ijhac.2021.0264 Project(s): PARTHENOS Metrics:
An approach to enhancing contemporary handmade products with historic narratives Partarakis N., Karuzaki E., Doulgeraki P., Meghini C., Beisswenger C., Hauser H., Zabulis X. Traditional crafts involve craft artefacts, materials and tools while encompassing craftsmanship as a form of intangible cultural heritage (ICH). In modern societies, the production of traditional crafts (TCs) has decreased due to the lack of interest and the reduction in the number of practitioners. In this context, we explore modern digital technologies to enhance a contemporary TCs object with digital stories that connect it to the history, society, traditions and values of Europe. Such stories can support new interest in TCs objects by enhancing their meaning, value and uniqueness. In this research work, we have created a handbag that functions both as an accessory and as a contemporary craft that can be experienced to reveal its unique history and identity.Source: International journal of intangible heritage (Seoul. Print) 16 (2021): 124–141. Project(s): Mingei
Edge-Based Video Surveillance with Embedded Devices Kavalionak H., Gennaro C., Amato G., Vairo C., Perciante C., Meghini C., Falchi F., Rabitti F. Video surveillance systems have become indispensable tools for the security and organization of public and private areas. In this work, we propose a novel distributed protocol for an edge-based face recogni-tion system that takes advantage of the computational capabilities of the surveillance devices (i.e., cameras) to perform person recognition. The cameras fall back to a centralized server if their hardware capabili-ties are not enough to perform the recognition. We evaluate the proposed algorithm via extensive experiments on a freely available dataset. As a prototype of surveillance embedded devices, we have considered a Rasp-berry PI with the camera module. Using simulations, we show that our algorithm can reduce up to 50% of the load of the server with no negative impact on the quality of the surveillance service.Source: 28th Symposium on Advanced Database Systems (SEBD), pp. 278–285, Villasimius, Sardinia, Italy, 21-24/06/2020
Representation and preservation of heritage crafts Zabulis X., Meghini C., Partarakis N., Beisswenger C., Dubois A., Fasoula M., Nitti V., Ntoa S., Adami I., Chatziantoniou A., Bartalesi V., Metilli D., Stivaktakis N., Patsiouras N., Doulgeraki P., Karuzaki E., Stefanidi E., Qammaz A., Kaplanidi D., Neumann-Janssen I., Denter U., Hauser H., Petraki A., Stivaktakis I., Mantinaki E., Rigaki A., Galanakis G. This work regards the digital representation of tangible and intangible dimensions of heritage crafts, towards craft preservation. Based on state-of-the-art digital documentation, knowledge representation and narrative creation approach are presented. Craft presentation methods that use the represented content to provide accurate, intuitive, engaging, and educational ways for HC presentation and appreciation are proposed. The proposed methods aim to contribute to HC preservation, by adding value to the cultural visit, before, and after it.Source: Sustainability (Basel) 12 (2020): 1–26. doi:10.3390/su12041461 DOI: 10.3390/su12041461 Project(s): Mingei Metrics:
Catalogue of E-RIHS resources and services Meghini C., Benassi L., Galeotti M., Bartalesi V., Concordia C., Castillejo M., Calvo C., Andreassi E., Striova J. The Deliverable 8.1 describes the work carried in Task 8.3 "Catalogue of E-RIHS resources and services". With the term resource we intend any entity that may be of interest to a Infrastructure such as the one that the E-RIHS PP project is setting up, i.e. mainly datasets and services, but also people, organizations, instruments, and other entities. The catalogue aims at providing researchers with information related to Heritage Science resources available within E-RIHS through a formal model that helps categorising them according to their different features. Such features will also be used for discovering the resources in the Catalogue.
The catalogue structure was designed to serve as the basis for accounting in-kind contributions and, in perspective, to be a single access point for resource discovery and access services.Source: Research report, E-RIHS PP, 739503, 2020 Project(s): E-RIHS PP