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2021 Contribution to book Open Access OPEN

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Agriculture: an overview of IoT-based scenarios
Bacco M., Barsocchi P., Gotta A., Ruggeri M.
The agricultural sector is experiencing a new revolution, giving birth to the so-called Agriculture 4.0 paradigm. It brings digital technologies in the field to support the farmers' work, enhancing the productivity of farms. In this chapter, the attention is focused on the role that both Internet of Things (IoT) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can play in this regard, whether used in a joint manner or not. We analyse the work being done both in recent research projects and in the literature on those topics, taking into account the role of long-range wireless communications to enable such scenarios, and the potential of 5G and the upcoming Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) technology, especially in rural areas, where the lack of connectivity is still hampering the process of digital transformation.Source: Autonomous Airborne Wireless Networks, edited by Muhammad Ali Imran, Oluwakayode Onireti, Shuja Ansari, Qammer H. Abbasi, pp. 217–235. Hoboken: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2021
DOI: 10.1002/9781119751717.ch11

See at: onlinelibrary.wiley.com Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2021 Report Restricted

International Network Generations Roadmap - Satellite
Kota S., Giambene G., Pillai P., Alouini M. A. M., Bas J., Dalai D., Darwish T., De Cola T., Delamotte T., Giordani M., Gotta A., Khattab T., Knopp A., Kurt G. K., Manoj B. S., Medjo J. D., Rawat P., Saxena P., Scanlan P., Sharma A., Sperber R., Tarchi D., Verma S., Yanikomeroglu H., Zhao K., Zhao L.
The fifth-generation (5G) Wireless Communication systems development has brought out a paradigm shift using advanced technologies e.g., softwarization, virtualization, Massive MIMO, ultra- densification and introduction of new frequency bands. However, as the societal needs grow, and to satisfy UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 6G and beyond systems are envisioned. Non- Terrestrial Networks including satellite systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) provide the best solutions to connect the unconnected, unserved and underserved in remote and rural areas in particular. Over the past few decades, Geo Synchronous Orbits (GSO) satellite systems have been deployed to support broadband services, backhauling, Disaster Recovery and Continuity of Operations (DR-COOP) and emergency services. Recently, there is a considerable renewed interest in planning and developing non-GSO satellite systems. Within the next few years there will be several thousands of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, mega constellations, will be ready to provide global Internet services. This report is the 2021 Edition of the INGR Satellite Working Group Report, subsequent to the First Edition [1]. The topics considered in this INGR Satellite WG 2021 Edition of the roadmap are the following: applications and services, reference architectures, new MIMO-based PHY, antenna and payload, machine learning and artificial intelligence, edge computing, QoS/QoE, security, network management and standardization. The work on the roadmap will continue towards the next edition of the roadmap addressing the details of the challenges and potential solutions for future networks such as 6G and beyond.Source: pp.1–111, 2021

See at: futurenetworks.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted


2021 Conference article Restricted

TEACHING - Trustworthy autonomous cyber-physical applications through human-centred intelligence
Bacco M., Carlini E., Cassarà P., Coppola M., Dazzi P., Gotta A.
This paper discusses the perspective of the H2020 TEACHING project on the next generation of autonomous applications running in a distributed and highly heterogeneous environment comprising both virtual and physical resources spanning the edge-cloud continuum. TEACHING puts forward a human-centred vision leveraging the physiological, emotional, and cognitive state of the users as a driver for the adaptation and optimization of the autonomous applications. It does so by building a distributed, embedded and federated learning system complemented by methods and tools to enforce its dependability, security and privacy preservation. The paper discusses the main concepts of the TEACHING approach and singles out the main AI-related research challenges associated with it. Further, we provide a discussion of the design choices for the TEACHING system to tackle the aforementioned challenges.Source: IEEE COINS 2021: IEEE International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent systems, Online conference, 23-26/08/2021
Project(s): TEACHING via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Monitoring ancient buildings: real deployment of an IoT system enhanced by UAVs and virtual reality
Bacco M., Barsocchi P., Cassarà P., Germanese D., Gotta A., Leone G. R., Moroni D., Pascali M. A., Tampucci M.
The historical buildings of a nation are the tangible signs of its history and culture. Their preservation deserves considerable attention, being of primary importance from a historical, cultural, and economic point of view. Having a scalable and reliable monitoring system plays an important role in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM): therefore, this paper proposes an Internet Of Things (IoT) architecture for a remote monitoring system that is able to integrate, through the Virtual Reality (VR) paradigm, the environmental and mechanical data acquired by a wireless sensor network set on three ancient buildings with the images and context information acquired by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Moreover, the information provided by the UAV allows to promptly inspect the critical structural damage, such as the patterns of cracks in the structural components of the building being monitored. Our approach opens new scenarios to support SHM activities, because an operator can interact with real-time data retrieved from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) by means of the VR environment.Source: IEEE access (2020). doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2980359
DOI: 10.1109/access.2020.2980359

See at: IEEE Access Open Access | IEEE Access Open Access | ieeexplore.ieee.org Open Access | IEEE Access Open Access | IEEE Access Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | IEEE Access Open Access


2020 Conference article Open Access OPEN

A simulation framework for QoE-Aware real-time video streaming in multipath scenarios
Bacco M., Cassarà P., Gotta A., Puddu M.
This work presents the ongoing development of a simulation/emulation framework for real-time multimedia transmissions in multichannel scenarios. The proposed software engine can be used to simulate the aggregation of multiple network links delivering a video flow from a video source, such as a camera mounted on-board an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to the indented receiver, such as the pilot on the ground. The software engine can also be used in real testbeds exploiting multiple physical links, such as 4G/5G cellular connections. The main aim of this novel software framework is to support the design, development, and test of different scheduling strategies to achieve real-time, good quality and fluidity, energy-efficient multimedia transmissions, by selecting the optimal subset of network channels able to meet the target Quality of Experience (QoE) at the receiver.Source: AdHoc-Now 2020 - The 19th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless, pp. 114–121, Bari, Italy, 19-21 October 2020
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-61746-2_9

See at: link.springer.com Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | link.springer.com Restricted


2020 Report Restricted

DESIRA - D1.3: Synthesis report on the taxonomy and inventory of digital game changers
Bacco F. M., Barsocchi P., Brunori G., Debruyne L., Ferrari A., Gotta A., Koltsida P., Lepore F., Orsini A., Rolandi S., Scotti I., Toli E.
This document describes a toolkit designed within the DESIRA project to support the work in the 20 Living Labs. This toolkit is composed of several parts: the inventory of digital tools, the set of application scenarios as derived from the inventory, a list of digital technologies with the potential of being digital game changers (DGCs), and a map of plausible socio-economic impacts associated with the selected potential DGCs. Several experts' interviews have been performed to enrich and support the toolkit.Source: Project report, DESIRA, Deliverable D1.3, pp.1–77, 2020
Project(s): DESIRA via OpenAIRE

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2020 Patent Unknown

Sistema e metodo di supporto ad un operatore per la navigazione
Sebastiani L., Di Summa Maria, Viganò G. P., Sacco M., Cassarà P, Gotta A., Figari M., Martelli M., Zaccone R.
Source: I0181468/MM, Nazionale

See at: CNR ExploRA


2020 Journal article Open Access OPEN

A Statistical Framework for Performance Analysis of Diversity Framed Slotted Aloha With Interference Cancellation
Cassarà P., Gotta A., De Cola T.
As the Internet of Things (IoT)/machine-to-machine market is rapidly growing, a special role is expected to be played by satellite communications in that they offer ubiquitous coverage and therefore enable typical monitoring, telemetry, and control services also in areas with a poor terrestrial infrastructure. In this respect, the case of massive IoT devices deployment calls for random access solutions, which have been long analyzed by the scientific satellite community in the last ten years. This article further elaborates on the relation between the normalized offered load and the achievable performance in terms of packet loss rate, which was not much addressed so far at high loads. The proposed theoretical framework has been validated through extensive simulation campaigns, which show an excellent match at different loads and number of interfering packets configurations, by significantly improving the results achievable through other existing theoretical frameworks.Source: IEEE transactions on aerospace and electronic systems 56 (2020): 4327–4337. doi:10.1109/TAES.2020.2989068
DOI: 10.1109/taes.2020.2989068

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted


2020 Report Open Access OPEN

TEACHING - D2.1: State-of-the-art analysis and preliminary requirement specifications for the computing and communication platform
Mencagli G., Dazzi P., Carlini E., Gotta A., Cassarà P., Girbal S., Giraudi L., Escobar A.
This deliverable is aimed at providing an initial report on state-of-the-art analysis, a preliminary requirements elicitation and conceptual design of the Distributed Computing and Communication platform for CPSoS, that we refer as High-Performance Computing and Communication Infrastructure (HPC2I). That is the infrastructure standing at the basis of TEACHING platform and support the execution of project use cases. The deliverable focuses on the several technical aspects impacting on the definition of the HPC2I. It resorts to the scientific literature and project use cases for the identification and analysis of the relevant research and technical challenges. Such challenges eventually contribute to the elicitation of requirements, that are reported in a formal way with project-wide identifiers. Later in the deliverable is given the definition of a conceptual, high-level system architecture, that is intended to be the basis on which to develop a concrete, full-fledged, architecture that will be presented in deliverable D2.2. Then, this deliverable summarizes some baseline tools and technologies that are suitable candidates to be used for supporting the project activities. Finally are drawn our conclusions.Source: Project Report, TEACHING, D2.1, 2020
Project(s): TEACHING via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

Reliable M2M/IoT data delivery from FANETs via satellite
Bacco F. M., Colucci M., Gotta A., Kourogiorgas C., Panagopoulos A.
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is rising in several application fields. This work deals with the communication challenges in UAV swarms, or Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANET), when taking into account non-line-of sight scenarios. The use of satellites is a necessity in such operating conditions, thus this work provides architectural considerations and performance assessments when several FANETs share an uplink Random Access (RA) satellite channel, fed with M2M/IoT traffic generated from onboard sensors, to be reliably delivered to a remote ground destination.Source: International journal of satellite communications and networking (Online) 37 (2019): 331–342. doi:10.1002/sat.1274
DOI: 10.1002/sat.1274

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted | onlinelibrary.wiley.com Restricted | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Restricted


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Performance analysis of WebRTC-based video streaming over power constrained platforms
Bacco M., Catena M., De Cola T., Gotta A., Tonellotto N.
This work analyses the use of the Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) framework on resource-constrained platforms. WebRTC is a consolidated solution for real-time video streaming, and it is an appealing solution in a wide range of application scenarios. We focus our attention on those in which power consumption, size and weight are of paramount importance because of the so-called Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) requirements, such as the use case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) delivering real-time video streams over WebRTC to peers on the ground. The testbed described in this work shows that the power consumption can be reduced by changing WebRTC default settings while maintaining comparable video quality.Source: Globecom 2018 - 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 9-13 December 2018
DOI: 10.1109/glocom.2018.8647375
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2705727
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2705728
Project(s): BigDataGrapes via OpenAIRE

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | zenodo.org Open Access | zenodo.org Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | elib.dlr.de Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

IoT applications and services in space information networks
Bacco M., Boero L., Cassarà P., Colucci M., Gotta A., Marchese M., Patrone F.
The rate of traffic generated by Machine-type Communications (MTC) is growing at a very fast pace, putting under strong pressure existing network infrastructures. One of the most challenging tasks attoday is being able to support machine-to-machine (M2M)/Internet ofThings (IoT) data exchanges by providing connectivity between any pair of M2M devices all over the world. For this reason, we analyse the roleof Space Information Networks (SINs) in supporting MTC, in this work. Horizontal solutions are analysed herein in order to allow interworkingby acting as relay entities among different protocol stacks and services, vertically implemented over different network segments. We analyse thestill pending challenges hampering interworking, and propose a possibleprotocol stack for M2M/IoT communications based on the oneM2M standard. Eventually, this paper compares the performance achievableby using two of the most diffused application protocols, ConstrainedApplication Protocol (CoAP) and Message Queuing Telemetry Transport(MQTT), shedding light on their efficiency and differences.Source: IEEE wireless communications 26 (2019): 31–37. doi:10.1109/MWC.2019.1800297
DOI: 10.1109/mwc.2019.1800297

See at: ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Wireless Communications Restricted


2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

TCP-based M2M traffic via random-access satellite links: throughput estimation
Bacco M., De Cola T., Giambene G., Gotta A.
Provisioning of IoT/M2M services over satellite has been experiencing a continuous growth in the last years, which is expected to further increase in the near future so as to meet the demands of users and enterprises. The design of a suitable network architecture is, hence, of paramount importance to properly take into account the requirements imposed by the technology available nowadays and to properly consider the interaction of the so-defined physical layer with transport and application layers. In this light, this paper analyses the use-case of TCP-based M2M services operating over DVB-RCS2 satellite links, where a Contention Resolution Diversity Slotted Aloha access scheme is applied. The main goal of the paper is to provide a thorough understanding of the interactions of TCP and random access schemes, recognised as key elements to enable efficient M2M services over satellite. In this regard, this paper also develops a novel TCP throughput model, which has been validated through extensive simulation campaigns, proving the value of the proposed theoretical framework and its applicability to study the performance of M2M services in more general satellite scenarios.Source: IEEE transactions on aerospace and electronic systems 55 (2019): 846–863. doi:10.1109/TAES.2018.2865150
DOI: 10.1109/taes.2018.2865150

See at: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | ieeexplore.ieee.org Restricted | CNR ExploRA Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted | IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Restricted


2019 Contribution to journal Open Access OPEN

Integration of 5G and aerospace networks by SDN and NFV techniques
Bacco M., Cassarà P., Gotta A.
5G trials are beginning in several parts of the world. The smarter core capabilities, along withincreased network capacity, very low delays and native support for machine-to-machinecommunications, open up several new application scenarios, while reinforcing existing ones.This work focuses on the joint use of aerospace platforms and 5G networks, surveying the hugeadvantages that their seamless integration can bring to the market, enabling ever more usecases and potentially providing coverage in low-population and low-income areas.Source: ERCIM news online edition 117 (2019): 26–27.

See at: ercim-news.ercim.eu Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Diversity framed slotted aloha with interference cancellation for maritime satellite communications
Bacco M., Cassarà P., Gotta A., De Cola T.
Providing reliable and efficient connectivity for maritime systems is a key objective to enable new services and to offer anytime-anywhere communication solutions to vessels operating in remote areas (e.g. oceans). Such a task has recently become quite compelling because of the increasing maritime traffic, which should be supported by an information distribution infrastructure in order to guarantee efficient data communication among vessels and control centres on land. To this end, satellites are the perfect candidates for achieving such an objective. This paper focuses on the case of messaging from moving vessels to fixed control centres on land by means of advanced channel random access schemes exploiting time diversity. In more detail, the paper extends an existing theoretical framework to evaluate the packet loss probability in Framed Slotted ALOHA systems by delving into the probability distribution of both colliding users within a frame and their replicas in time slots. The theoretical framework is validated through simulations campaigns, showing a good match between analytical and simulated results.Source: ICC 2019 - IEEE International Conference on Communications, Shanghai, China, 20-24 May 2019
DOI: 10.1109/icc.2019.8761233

See at: ieeexplore.ieee.org Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Real-Time Multipath Multimedia Traffic in Cellular Networks for Command and Control Applications
Bacco M., Cassarà P., Gotta A., Pellegrini V.
This work describes a real testbed for enabling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)-to-ground real-time video streaming. The aim is in providing a video feed to the pilot on the ground for Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLoS) operations exploiting cellular networks in urban/suburban areas. Towards this aim, multipath communications are used in a multi-operator setup to counteract the intermittent network coverage in urban and suburban ares. The main requirements are: low latency, and a continuous video stream of reasonable quality. We rely on both upper-layer Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques and link diversity, so to increase the probability of a fluid video playback with acceptable quality. We report per-link statistics, collected during field trials, of three different cellular operators, to analyse the impact of using a set of physical links as a single logical one on a RTP-based video streaming. In our tests, such a setup has provided a good level of performance.Source: IEEE VTC, pp. 1–5, Honolulu, Hawaii, 22-25/09/2019
DOI: 10.1109/vtcfall.2019.8891090

See at: ieeexplore.ieee.org Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | academic.microsoft.com Restricted | dblp.uni-trier.de Restricted | xplorestaging.ieee.org Restricted


2019 Report Restricted

KI-FOOT - Definizione dei requisiti e del design del prototipo
Palumbo F., Barsocchi P., Furfari F., Potortì F., Gotta A., Miori V., La Rosa D., Cassarà P., Tognetti A., Pellizzon M., Campigli L., Tesconi M., Zupone G., Petruzzi L.
Il documento contiene l'analisi dei requisiti del progetto e la definizione dei parametri biometrici/biomeccanici da rilevare, della piattaforma sensoristica necessaria, dell'interfaccia utente e il database per la memorizzazione delle informazioni.Source: Project report, KI-FOOT, Deliverable D1.1, 2019

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Report Restricted

KI-FOOT - Report sulla definizione delle tecnologie di analisi dati e signal processing
Palumbo F., Barsocchi P., Furfari F., Potortì F., Gotta A., Miori V., La Rosa D., Cassarà P.
Lo scopo di questo documento è la rassegna dello stato dell'arte delle tecniche per l'analisi del cammino, in particolare per l'estrazione degli indicatori individuati nel precedente documento D1.1. Inoltre, considerando i sensori selezionati per l'installazione nella scarpa, sono illustrate le metodologie per adattare gli algoritmi disponibili in letteratura al contesto di Ki-Foot.Source: Project report, KI-FOOT, Deliverable D2.1, 2019

See at: CNR ExploRA Restricted


2019 Conference article Open Access OPEN

Networking challenges for non-terrestrial networks exploitation in 5G
Bacco M., Davoli F., Giambene G., Gotta A., Luglio M., Marchese M., Patrone F., Roseti C.
The standardization process of the fifth generation of mobile communications (5G) is still ongoing, with planned end in 2020. A lot of changes have been made from the previous generations involving different technologies, concepts, and paradigms, which will deeply affect the telecommunication infrastructure and its management. Besides, a higher number of use cases and application scenarios are envisioned in the near future. This will contribute in generating higher and higher traffic volumes from a higher number of connected devices/users with different performance requirements. Additional network resources are required to fulfill users' requirements in order to guarantee the expected Quality of Experience (QoE). The integration of Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTNs) within the 5G framework is under standardization and can lead to manifold advantages, such as coverage extension and additional communication link, among many others. However, NTN integration is also leading to challenges related to the employment and adaptation to aerospace networks of technologies originally designed for terrestrial networks. This paper provides an overview of the role of NTNs in the 5G ecosystem, of the application scenarios that can benefit from the integration among terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks, and of some identified challenges from the networking viewpoint, which still require further analysis towards possible solutions.Source: IEEE 5G World Forum (5GWF), pp. 1–6, Dresden, Germany, 30/09-02/10/2019
DOI: 10.1109/5gwf.2019.8911669

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2019 Journal article Open Access OPEN

The Digitisation of Agriculture: a survey of Research Activities on Smart Farming
Bacco M., Barsocchi P., Ferro E., Gotta A., Ruggeri M.
The impulse towards a larger introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the agricultural field is currently experiencing its momentum, as digitisation has large potentialities to provide benefits for both producers and consumers; on the other hand, pushing technological solutions into a rural context encounters several challenges. In this work, we provide a survey of the most recent research activities, in the form of both research projects and scientific literature, with the objective of showing the already achieved results, the current investigations, and the still open challenges, both technical and non technical. We mainly focus on the EU territory, identifying threats and concerns, and then looking at existing and upcoming solutions to overcome those barriers.Source: Array 3-4 (2019): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.array.2019.100009
DOI: 10.1016/j.array.2019.100009
Project(s): DESIRA via OpenAIRE

See at: Array Open Access | Array Open Access | Array Open Access | Array Open Access | Array Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | ISTI Repository Open Access | CNR ExploRA Open Access | Array Open Access | www.sciencedirect.com Open Access | ZENODO Open Access